Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

UPSC Syllabus for Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in – Human Actions; Dimensions of Ethics; Ethics – in Private and Public Relationships. Human Values – Lessons from the Lives and Teachings of Great Leaders, Reformers and Administrators; Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values.
Attitude: Content, Structure, Function; its Influence and Relation with Thought and Behaviour; Moral and Political Attitudes; Social Influence and Persuasion.
Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Service, Integrity, Impartiality and Non-partisanship, Objectivity, Dedication to Public Service, Empathy, Tolerance and Compassion towards the weaker-sections.
Emotional Intelligence-Concepts, and their Utilities and Application in Administration and Governance.
Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India and World.
Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration: Status and Problems; Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas in Government and Private Institutions; Laws, Rules, Regulations and Conscience as Sources of Ethical Guidance; Accountability and Ethical Governance; Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance; Ethical Issues in International Relations and Funding; Corporate Governance.
Probity in Governance: Concept of Public Service; Philosophical Basis of Governance and Probity; Information Sharing and Transparency in Government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work Culture, Quality of Service Delivery, Utilization of Public Funds, Challenges of Corruption.

Case Studies on above issues.


1. (a) Wisdom lies in knowing what to reckon with and what to overlook. An officer being engrossed with the periphery, ignoring the core issues before him, is no rare in the bureaucracy. Do you agree that such preoccupation of an administrator leads to travesty of justice to the cause of effective service delivery and good governance? Critically evaluate. (150 words)
In any bureaucracy, it is essential that administrators remain focused on the core issues that they are tasked to address. If they become too engrossed with minor details like procedural details, record-keeping etc it may cause travesty of justice
Preoccupation with peripheral issues leads to the travesty of justice:
  • They may lose sight of their goals and objectives.
  • Lead to lack of accountability -not being answerable for the core issues – hold ego-defensive attitudes.
  • Makes officers less empathetic 
    E.g.: Tribal girl in Jharkhand died due to starvation since her Aadhar was not linked with ration card.
  • Poor decision-making–Not able to prioritise duty over work
  • Ineffective service delivery
    E.g.: Rejecting RTI due to incorrect format.
Peripheral issues like record-keeping and procedural correctness may help in better auditing and stability to office. However, core issues like human suffering, compassion, spirit of service must not be overlooked.
In order to avoid these problems, administrators must remain focused on the core issues andmust be willing to overlook minor details and extraneous issues in order to address the fundamental problems facing their organization. By doing so, they can ensure that they are providing effective service delivery and good governance to their constituents.
1. (b) Apart from intellectual competency and moral qualities, empathy and compassion are some of the other vital attributes that facilitate the civil servants to be more competent in tackling the crucial issues or taking critical decisions. Explain with suitable illustrations. (150 words)
Intellectual competency helps civil servants to understand technicalities of the process and bring innovative solutions. Moral qualities like integrity, impartiality brings equality, accountability, and transparency to their work.
However, empathy and compassion are also important attributes for civil servants as they deal with various individuals and groups in society, including marginalized.
Importance of empathy and Compassion:
  • Empathy: Helps to better understand the concerns of peoplefrom their perspective.
    E.g.: Divya Devarajan IAS learned Gond language to better communicate with the tribals of Adilabad, AP.
  • Resolving dilemma: Helps ineffective decision making and conflict resolution by bringing in different perspectives.
  • Decision making: Increases spirit of service and problem solving
  • Build public trust and participation.
    E. g.: Atul Kulkarni initiated ‘Bharosa cells’ for women to help overcome their fear of police.
  • Welfare of citizen: Effective implementation of schemes
    E.g.: Dr Rajendra Bharud, collector of Maharashtra’s Nandurbar, used his medical skills and compassion to arrange for medical support for tribal district during Covid.
Thus, empathy and compassion alongside intellectual competency and moral qualities, is crucial for effective service delivery and good governance. It also helps civil servants in making decisions that are just and equitable, leading to better outcomes for all.
2. (a) The Rules and Regulations provided to all the civil servants are same, yet there is difference in the performance. Positive minded officers are able to interpret the Rules and Regulations in favour of the case and achieve success, whereas negative minded officers are unable to achieve goals by interpreting the same Rules and Regulations against the case. Discuss with illustrations. (150 words)
According to United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), the ethical public officer promotes socio-economic development and unethical behaviours threaten development and loss of trust in public institutions. While rules and Regulations are the same for all civil servants, but the interpretation and application of these rules can vary depending on the mindset of the officer.
Positive minded officers possess:
  • Innovation and Efficiency: They explore innovative solutions to streamline processes and improve citizen experience.
    E.g.: The officer interprets the rules to accommodate electronic signatures, enabling citizens to digitally sign documents.
  • Empowering Grassroots Initiatives: They encourage community participation and collaboration to address local challenges.
    E.g.: The officer interprets rules to delegate decision-making powers to local bodies, empowering them to implement development projects according to local needs.
  • Objectivity:They ensure that scheme is carried out for the purpose it was created rather than worrying about administrative aspect of implementation of the scheme.
    E.g.: When an officer at bank sends an official at the home of senior citizen for the banking services instead of refusing for the service.
  • Spirit of public service:They interpret the rules and regulations to provide justice in efficient manner and use their discretion to help the people.
Negative minded officers possess:
  • Rigid Interpretation: A negative-minded Indian civil servant interprets rules and regulations strictly without considering the context or potential positive outcomes.
    E.g.: Denying food grains at ration shop to a person because his biometrics details were not updated in the database due to connectivity issues.
  • Resistance to Change:They resists adopting new technologies or practices due to concerns about non-compliance or potential risks, even if they can significantly improve service delivery and efficiency.
    E.g.: The officer dismisses the use of digital platforms for filing tax returns, citing concerns about data security and unfamiliar regulations.
  • Micromanagement: A negative-minded officer interprets rules in a way that promotes excessive control and micromanagement, limiting the autonomy and creativity of subordinates.
    E.g.: Constant interference and excessive monitoring hampers the initiative and motivation of team members, leading to reduced efficiency.
In conclusion, positive-minded officers with qualities of compassion, dedication, and innovationtend to perform better and achieve success by seeing opportunities and interpreting rules to benefitthe case, while negative-minded officers due to apathy, ego-defensive and bureaucratic attitudemay struggle to achieve their goals by interpreting rules in a way that hinders the case. It is important to cultivate positive attitudes through training, role modelling, rewards to improve public service delivery.
2. (b) It is believed that adherence to ethics in human actions would ensure in smooth functioning of an organization/system. If so, what does ethics seek to promote in human life? How do ethical values assist in the resolution of conflicts faced by him in his day-to-day functioning? (150 words)
Ethics refers to standards of right and wrong in human conduct. It is a set of widely accepted norms instructed to follow accepted behaviours.
Ethics and smooth functioning of organisation
  • Maintain moral qualities of professional integrity, accountability etc
  • Improves work culture – better work-relationships, trust
  • Ethical methods of meeting company goals – improved results.
Ethics in human life
  • Social cohesion: Besides the above professional values, ethics promote compassion, fairness, respect, and responsibility in human life.
  • Moral agent: Ethics distinguish between right and wrong, and to choose morally correct.
  • Live a life with dignity in upholding morals –
    E. g.: Bring work-life balance and stability
  • Self-Awareness: Achieve self-realisation and use ability for benefit of others.
Ethical values in the resolution of day-to-day conflicts
  • Emotional Intelligence: They provide a framework for decision-making that is fair and just. This helps to reduce the likelihood of conflicts arising in the first place.
    E.g.: In a business negotiation, ethical individuals prioritize cooperation over competition, seeking opportunities for mutually beneficial agreements.
  • Attitude: Individuals can analyse the situation and evaluate the options available to them based on ethical principles.
    E.g.: If an employee is faced with a situation to do something unethical by their supervisor, they can prioritize honesty and integrity.
  • Empathy and Compassion:Help resolve conflicts in a waythat is constructive and beneficial for all parties involved.
    E.g.:In a family dispute over inheritance, a mediator shows empathy towards each family member, acknowledging their emotional attachment to certain assets.
By upholding ethical values, individuals can maintain their integrity and avoid compromising on their moral principles, even in difficult situations. This can ultimately lead to better outcomes for individuals and society.
3. (a) Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have the right to do and what is right to do.’-Potter Stewart. (150 words)
This quote by Potter Stewart emphasizes the importance of ethical behaviour and the need to distinguish between what is legally permissible and what is morally right. Ethics are the principles and values that guide our behavior and decision-making, and they go beyond mere compliance with rules and regulations.
Our right to do things:
  • Legal Rights:They define what individuals or groups are legally allowed to do or possess.
    E.g.:A person has the legal right to freedom of speech, which allows them to express their opinions without fear of government censorship or persecution.
  • Moral Rightness: It is subjective and can vary based on personal beliefs, cultural norms, or philosophical perspectives.
    E.g.:While a person may have the legal right to spread rumours it is considered morally wrong because it causes harm and violates principles of respect.
Right things to do:
  • Actively benefit others: Increase the reputation and honour of one’s institution.
    CSR, Probity, Transparency
  • Protect the rights of others: Under the Article 25, every citizen has freedom to profess, practice and propagate the religion. But, promoting religious conversion through bribery, coercion, violence is wrong and illegal action.
  • Moral obligation:Moral obligations are duties or responsibilities guided by ethical principles or personal values.
    E.g.: A doctor has a legal obligation to maintain patient confidentiality as mandated by healthcare privacy laws.
Ethics seek to promote moral behaviour and encourage individuals to act in the best interest of society. By adhering to ethical principles, individuals can avoid harmful and unethical behaviour and promote the common good. Ethical values such as honesty, fairness, respect, and responsibility can also help in the resolution of conflicts by providing a framework for decision-making and behaviour that considers the rights and well-being of all parties involved
3. (b) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – Abdul Kalam. (150 words)
Corruption is a form of dishonesty or a criminal offense which is undertaken by a person or an organisation which is entrusted in a position of authority, in order to acquire illicit benefits or abuse power for one's personal gain.The quote by Abdul Kalam highlights the importance of parents and teachers in shaping a corruption-free and intellectually sound nation.
Role of Parents in making difference:
  • Values:Play crucial role in instilling moral values and ethics in their children.
    E.g.: Inchildhoodparents can tell moral storiesinculcate values.
  • Role model:Children learn by observing parents and emulating their actions.
    E.g.: Hard work, honesty etc can be developed in children by the attitude of parents.
  • Father:The role of a father in this context symbolizes leadership and guidance within the family unit and society as a whole.
    E.g.: He can lead by example, teaching their children about honesty, responsibility, and the consequences of corrupt behaviour.
  • Mother:By fostering a sense of justice and nurturing moral character, mothers contribute to the development of an ethical and corruption-free society.
Role of teachers in making difference:
  • Role model:They can inspire their students to be honest, fair, and responsible in their actions and decisions.
    E.g.: They can inculcate values like secularism, gender equality etc.
  • Critical thinking: Promote ethical behaviour by modelling it themselves, creating a safe and respectful learning environment, and providing guidance and support to students who may be struggling.
    E.g.: Ramakrishna Paramahamsa was spiritual teacher of Swami Vivekananda and he transformed the character of Vivekananda by teaching.
Thus, collaboration between the three societal members is essential in shaping a nation of beautiful minds and achieving a corruption-free society.
3. (c) “Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it.” Dalai Lama. (150 words)
This quote by the Dalai Lama emphasizes the idea that success often requires sacrifice. In order to achieve something meaningful, one must often give up something else in exchange. Success is the result of making right priorities and giving up less important things in your life.
Things to hold to be successful:
  • Sacrifice and Commitment: Success often requires dedication, hard work, and perseverance, which may involve sacrificing other opportunities, comforts, or personal desires.
    Example: An aspiring athlete who dedicates countless hours to training, sacrifices leisure time, and maintains a strict diet in order to excel in their sport.
  • Prioritization and Trade-offs: To achieve success, individuals often need to prioritize their goals and make choices, sometimes giving up one thing to attain another.
    Example: A student aiming for academic success may have to sacrifice recreational activities or limit social engagements to allocate more time for studying and preparation.
  • Persistence and Perseverance: It requires perseverance, resilience, and the willingness to keep pushing forward despite obstacles or setbacks along the way.
    Example: An entrepreneur may face financial struggles and uncertainty; however, they persist and make personal sacrifices to establish a successful venture.
  • Personal Growth and Development: It may require giving up familiar routines or embracing new challenges to reach higher levels of achievement.
    Example: An individual who aspires to become a professional musician may sacrifice a stable job to pursue their passion.
  • Encourages to reflect on what they are willing to give up in order to achieve their goals.
  • We can cultivate a sense of appreciation and gratitude for the sacrifices.
  • Reminds us that success is not always easy, and requires hard work, dedication, and sacrifice.
  • In public servants this can help in cultivating perseverance and resilience.
  • Helps to choose the hard but ethical path in life. Example, not to copy in exams, take bribes etc
  • Become empathetic to the sufferings of others and help them.
Hence, Dalai Lama has rightly said that one’s success must be judged by the sacrifices he has to make to achieve his goals. By setting the priorities, we can achieve all our goals. Because failing individuals have given priorities to short term pleasure.
4. (a) What do you understand by term ‘good governance’? How far recent initiatives in terms of e-Governance steps taken by the State have helped the beneficiaries? Discuss with suitable examples. (150 words)
Good governance refers to the effective and efficient management of public affairs, resources, and institutions in a transparent, accountable, participatory, and responsive manner, while upholding the rule of law and promoting social justice. Good governance ensures the best interest of its citizens, while promoting sustainable development and minimizing corruption.
Recent initiatives in terms of e-Governance steps taken by the State have greatly helped the beneficiaries: -
  • Digital Services: Online services for various applications has reduced paperwork and long waiting times.
    E.g.: DigiLocker aims at digital empowerment of citizens by providing access to authentic digital documents.
  • Transparency and Accountability:
    E.g.: Initiatives like e-Tendering and e-Procurement have reduced corruption in public procurement.
  • Citizen Engagement: Promotes participatory democracy.
    E.g.: allow citizens to contribute ideas and feedback on various policies, promoting a participatory approach
  • Online Grievance Redressal: Develop trust in government.
    E.g.: Centralized Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS) has made it easier for beneficiaries to register complaints and seek resolution.
  • Efficient Service Delivery:Enables hassle free services.
    E.g.: Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) enable the direct transfer of government subsidies to beneficiaries' bank accounts, eliminating intermediaries and reducing leakages.
Overall, e-Governance initiatives have helped in improving the transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness of governance, while reducing corruption and promoting citizen-centric governance.
4. (b) Online methodology is being used for day-to-day meetings, institutional approvals in the administration and for teaching and learning in education sector to the extent telemedicine in the health sector is getting popular with the approvals of the competent authority. No doubt it has advantages and disadvantages for both the beneficiaries and system at large. Describe and discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of online method particularly to vulnerable section of society. (150 words)
The advent of pandemic has led all activities, businesses, education, trade, health, and social interactions to an online mode.
Advantages of Online Methodology:
  • Convenience – reduces workload
  • Accessibility – data can transfer long and accessed much easily simultaneously
    E.g.: Online methodology has led to wider acceptance for ‘Work from Home’, which has provided a boost to encourage careers and managing work-life balance.
  • Cost-effectiveness – less infrastructure and man-power needed
    E.g.:Teleconsultation has made it easy for patients and doctors to connect at ease, especially during the time of pandemic.
Disadvantages of Online Methodology:
  • Frequent network issues and technical problems particularly in underdeveloped regions.
  • Increase in unemployment due to online education and other services.
  • Digital divide presents a challenge for universal usage of online mediums.
Ethical issues involved in the use of online method the vulnerable sections of society
  • Inequitable Access: Not everyone has equal access to technology or reliable internet connectivity, which can create a digital divide.
    E.g.: Poor connectivity in remote villages hinders access to online education, leaving marginalized students at a disadvantage.
  • Exclusion of Non-Digital Natives:
    E.g.: Senior citizens, face challenges in accessing online healthcare due to limited technological proficiency.
  • Cybersecurity Risks: Vulnerable individuals may fall victim to online fraud.
    E.g.: Phishing scams.
  • Online Harassment and Exploitation: Vulnerable groups, such as women, children, and LGBTQ+ individuals, may faceharassment.
    E.g.: Instances of online stalking
  • Bias and Discrimination: Online decision-making systems may perpetuate biases:
    Eg.: Biased facial recognition technology that disproportionately misidentifies individuals with darker skin tones can lead to discriminatory outcomes in law enforcement
  • Diversity issues:
    E.g.: Lack of content in tribal languages, application being not differently-abled friendly.
In conclusion, while online methodology has several advantages, it is essential to address the ethical issues and challenges involved in its implementation, particularly for the vulnerable sections of society. Appropriate measures must be taken to ensure equitable access, data privacy and security, and human connection.
5. (a) Russia and Ukraine war has been going on for the last seven months. Different countries have taken independent stands and actions keeping in view their own national interests. We are all aware that war has its own impact on the different aspects of society, including human tragedy. What are those ethical issues that are crucial to be considered while launching the war and its continuation so far? Illustrate with justification the ethical issues involved in the given state of affair. (150 words)
War is a human made catastrophe that caused tragedy to present and future generations.We are witnessing that how Russia – Ukraine war seriously impacting the all-possible corners of society by the way of gross human rights violation, disruptions in global demand supply chain, wastage of precious resources, widespread painful migration.
Ethical issues involved in Ukraine Russia War include:
  • Human rights: Women, children and other vulnerable section faces unprecedented hardships for no fault of theirs.
  • Rights of future generation: Cost of present generation war is paid by next generation. Example, effects of atom bomb in Japan continues even after several decades.
  • Issues of accountability:In war time, who is accountable and answerable to whom, there is no fix criteria. This leads to indiscriminate killings.
  • Proportionality: Ethics of war should be entitled to its proportionate response but, attack on Ukraine nuclear reactor by Russia can amount to grave consequences to the world.
  • War as last resort: Has both nations tried all forms of negotiations and mediation. Russia and Ukraine should have gone for mediation by UN or a neutral country.
  • Economic and environmental consequences: The conflict has disrupted trade, damaged infrastructure, and caused environmental damage, such as oil spills.
In conclusion, the conflict between Russia and Ukraine raises several ethical issuesand solution to the conflict must take these ethical considerations into account, and must strive to minimize the harm caused to innocent civilians.

5. (b) Write short notes on the following in 30 words each:

i) Constitutional morality

ii) Conflict of interest

iii) Probity in public life

iv) Challenges of digitalization

v) Devotion to duty

i) Constitutional morality: The adherence to the values enshrined in the constitution, which includes respect for the rule of law, democracy, and human rights.
E.g.:When the Indian Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the right to privacy as a fundamental right, it was a clear example of adherence to constitutional morality
(ii) Conflict of interest: A situation where a public official's personal interests or financial interests may conflict with the interests of the public, and may impair their ability to perform their duties objectively.
E.g.:If a public official owns shares in a company that is seeking government contracts
(iii) Probity in public life: The adherence to high ethical standards and values in public life, which includes honesty, integrity, transparency, and accountability.
E.g.: Public official discloses their assets and liabilities, demonstrates their commitment to transparency and accountability in public life
(iv) Challenges of digitalization: The ethical challenges that arise with the increasing use of technology and digitalization including privacy and security concerns, access and inclusivity issues, and the need for digital literacy and skills.
E.g.: Digital divide presents a challenge for universal usage of online mediums.
(v) Devotion to duty: The commitment of public officials to perform their duties with dedication and diligence, and to prioritize the public interest over their own personal interests.
E.g.: Healthcare workers continue to work tirelessly during a pandemic, despite the risks to their own health.
6. (a) Whistle blower, who reports corruption and illegal activities, wrongdoing and misconduct to the concerned authorities, runs the risk of being exposed to grave danger, physical harm and victimization by the vested interests, accused persons and his team. What policy measures would you suggest to strengthen protection mechanism to safeguard the whistle blower? (150 words)
Whistle-blowers play a crucial role in ensuring transparency and accountability in public life by exposing corruption and illegal activities. However, they often face the risk of retaliation and victimization.
Policy measures for whistle-blowerprotection:
  • Legal Protection: There should be clear and strong legal protection for whistleblowers, including provisions for anonymity, protection against retaliation, and immunity from civil and criminal liability.
    E.g.:The Whistle-blower Protection Act of the United States provides legal safeguards to federal employees who report misconduct.
  • Institutional Mechanisms: Whistleblower Protection Officers and Whistleblower Protection Cells can be set up to receive, process, and act on complaints.
    E.g.: Like The Office of the Whistleblower Protection Commissioner in South Africa in protection and support of whistleblowers.
  • Awareness Campaigns: Educate people about its importance and the protections available to them.
  • Training and Support: Whistleblowers should be provided with training on how to identify and report wrongdoing, and how to protect themselves from retaliation and support mechanisms, including legal advice, counselling, and financial assistance
  • Confidentiality: The identity of whistleblowers should be kept confidential, and steps should be taken to prevent leaks or breaches of confidentiality.
    E.g.: The Dodd-Frank Act in the United States includes provisions for monetary rewards to whistleblowers who provide information leading to successful enforcement actions against financial fraud.
By implementing these policy measures, we can create a safe and supportive environment for whistleblowers, which will encourage more people to come forward and report corruption and illegal activities.
6. (b) In contemporary world, corporate sector’s contribution in generating wealth and employment is increasing. In doing so, they are bringing in unprecedented onslaught on the climate, environmental sustainability and living conditions of human beings. In this background, do you think that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is efficient and sufficient enough to fulfil the social roles and responsibilities needed in the corporate work mandated? Critically examine. (150 words)
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept where companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and interactions with their stakeholders.
Importance of CSR
  • Principle of trusteeship: Helps in building trust and enhance the reputation of a company among stakeholders, including customers, employees, investors, and communities.
  • Employee Engagement and Retention: Promote healthy work culture and corporate governance
    E.g.: Google is renowned for its CSR efforts and commitment to employee well-being.
  • Community development: Play important role in solving societal problems and promotes inclusive growth
    E.g.: Microsoft’s "AI for Earth" program aims to leverage artificial intelligence (AI) technology to address environmental challenges.
  • Supplement government efforts
Insufficiency of CSR in addressing social and environmental challenges that corporations face:
  • Not binding: CSR initiatives are often voluntary, ad-hoc, and driven by public relations considerations rather than genuine concern for social impact.
  • Illegal activities: CSR initiatives can serve as a smokescreen for corporations to mask unethical and exploitative business practices.
    E.g.: Labour rights violations, environmental degradation, and tax evasion.
  • Corporate – Politico nexus: Concerns of political favouritism also affects CSR model.
    E.g.: Using CSR fund for political nexus.
Suggestions to improve CSR
  • Define clear CSR objectives:Incorporateenvironmentally and socially sustainable business practices
  • Integration into Core Business Practices: Ensuring fair and ethical treatment of employees and suppliers.
  • Engage stakeholders: Engage in transparent and accountable corporate governance
    E.g.: The partnership between the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and various private sector companies.
  • Measurement and Reporting: Better government regulations and policies that hold companies accountable for their impact on the environment and society
The scope and scale of the environmental degradation and social inequality caused by the corporate sector may be too large to be tackled solely through CSR initiatives. However, companies must comprehensively and proactively work to reduce their carbon footprint and impact on the environment, and adopt sustainable practices in their operations.
7.  Prabhat was working as Vice President (Marketing) at Sterling Electric Ltd., a reputed multinational company. But presently the company was passing through the difficult times as the sales were continuously showing downward trend in the last two quarters. His division, which hitherto had been a major revenue contributor to the company’s financial health, was now desperately trying to procure some big government order for them. But their best efforts did not yield any positive success or breakthrough.
His was a professional company and his local bosses were under pressure from their London-based HO to show some positive results. In the last performance review meeting taken by the Executive Director (India Head), he was reprimanded for his poor performance. He assured them that his division is working on a special contract from the Ministry of Defence for a secret installation near Gwalior and tender is being submitted shortly.
He was under extreme pressure and he was deeply perturbed. What aggravated the situation further was a warning from the top that if the deal is not clinched in favour of the company, his division might have to be closed and he may have to quit his lucrative job.
There was another dimension which was causing him deep mental torture and agony. This pertained to his personal precarious financial health. He was a single earner in the family with two school-college going children and his old ailing mother. The heavy expenditure on education and medical was causing a big strain to his monthly pay packet. Regular EMI for housing loan taken from bank unavoidable and any default would render him liable for severe legal action.
In the above backdrop, he was hoping for some miracle to happen. There was sudden turn of events. His Secretary informed that a gentleman Subhas Verma wanted to see him as he was interested in the position of Manager which was to be filled by him in the company. He further brought to his notice that his CV has been received through the office of the Minister of Defence.
During interview of the candidate-Subhash Verma, he found him technically sound, resourceful and experienced marketeer. He seemed to be well-conversant with tendering procedures and having knack of follow-up and liaising in this regard Prabhat felt that he was better choice than the rest of the candidates who were recently interviewed by him in the last few days.
Subhash Verma also indicated that he was in possession of the copies of the bid documents that the Unique Electronics Ltd. would be submitting the next day to the Defence Ministry for their tender. He offered to hand over those documents subject to his employment in the company on suitable terms and conditions. He made it clear that in the process, the Sterling Electric Ltd. could outbid their rival company and get the bid and hefty Defence Ministry order. He indicated that it will be win-win situation for both-him and the company.
Prabhat was absolutely stunned. It was a mixed feeling of shock and thrill. He was uncomfortable and perspiring. If accepted, all his problems would vanish instantly and he may be rewarded for securing the much awaited tender and thereby boosting company’s sales and financial health. He was in a fix as to the future course of action. He was wonder-struck at the guts of Subhash Verma in having surreptitiously removing his own company papers and offering to the rival company for a job. Being an experienced person, he was examining the pros and cons of the proposal/situation and he asked him to come the next day.
(a) Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case.
(b) Critically examine the options available to Prabhat in the above situation.
(c) Which of the above would be the most appropriate for Prabhat and why?
(250 words)
The case study points to the case of professional and personal integrity. A professionally qualified candidate (Subhash) is using unethical means. As the Vice president of a financially ailing company, Prabhat has to take a decision.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a)  Ethical issues involved in the case
  • Corruption and bribery as Subhash Verma is offering confidential bid documents to Sterling Electric Ltd. in exchange for employment.
  • Professional ethics as Prabhat is under pressure to secure a government contract and is considering hiring someone who has stolen documents from his previous employer.
  • Personal ethics as Prabhat is facing financial strain and may be tempted to accept Subhash Verma's offer to solve his personal problems.
  • Loyalty and trust as Prabhat must decide whether to hire someone who has shown disloyalty to his previous employer.
(b) Prabhat's options:
  • Refuse offer and report him to the appropriate authorities:
    • This option maintains his integrity and ensures disciplinary action is taken against Subhash. But this could jeopardize his chances of securing the government contract and could lead to the closure of his division.
  • Accept offer and hire him:
    • This will enable him to keep his job but this would be unethical as it involves accepting stolen documents and could harm the reputation of Sterling Electric Ltd.
  • Reject Subhash Verma's offer and continue searching for a suitable candidate for the position.
    • This will help maintain integrity. However, this may not solve the issue of corruption involved. Subhash may go to another company.
(c) The most appropriate course of action for Prabhat
To reject the officer and report the incident.
  • By doing so, he upholds ethical principles, maintains the integrity of the bidding process, and protects the interests of his current company.
  • Accepting stolen bid documents and engaging in bribery or corruption would not only be unethical but also expose Prabhat and his company to legal and reputational risks.
  • Also, it is not guaranteed that hiring Subhash Verma would lead to the successful bid for the government contract.
  • Prabhat should then focus on finding a qualified and ethical candidate for the position and work towards securing the government contract through legal and ethical means.
Reporting the incident ensures that appropriate actions are taken against Subhash Verma and reinforces a culture of ethics and integrity within the organization.
8) Ramesh is State Civil Services Officer who got the opportunity of getting posted to the capital of a border State after rendering 20 years of service. Ramesh’s mother has recently been detected cancer and has been admitted in the leading cancer hospital of the city. His two adolescent children have also got admission in one of the best public schools of the town. After settling down in his appointment as Director in the Home Department of the State, Ramesh got confidential report through intelligence sources that illegal migrants are infiltrating in the State from the neighbouring country. He decided to personally carry out surprise check of the border posts along with his Home Department team. To his surprise, he caught red-handed two families of 12 members infiltrated with the connivance of the security personnel at the border posts. On further inquiry and investigation, it was found that after the migrants from neighbouring country infiltrate, their documentation like Aadhaar Card, Ration Card and Voter Card are also forged and they are made to settle down in a particular area of the State. Ramesh prepared the detailed and comprehensive report and submitted to the Additional Secretary of the State. However, he has summoned by the Additional Home Secretary after a week and was instructed to withdraw the report. The Additional Home Secretary informed Ramesh that the report submitted by him has not been appreciated by the higher authorities. He further cautioned him that if he fails to withdraw the confidential ort, he will not only be posted out from the prestigious appointment from the State capital but his further promotion which is due in near future will also get in jeopardy.
(a) What are the options available to Ramesh as the Director of the Home Department of the bordering State?
(b) What option should Ramesh adopt and why?
(c) Critically evaluate each of the options.
(d) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Ramesh?
(e) What policy measures would you suggest to combat the menace of infiltration of illegal migrants from the neighbouring country?
(250 words)
Ramesh, as Director of the Home Department uncovers the infiltration of illegal migrants with the connivance of security personnel. However, he faces pressure from the Additional Home Secretary to withdraw his comprehensive report on the matter.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Options available to Ramesh as the Director of the Home Department of the bordering State
  • He can comply with the Additional Home Secretary's instructions and withdraw the confidential report.
  • He can refuse to withdraw the report and stand by his findings, regardless of the consequences.
  • He can approach the higher authorities, and request their intervention.
  • He can leak the report to the media or other sources, in order to bring public attention to the issue.
  • He can resign from his position in protest against the government's unwillingness to address the issue of illegal migration.
(b) The option Ramesh should standby his report and approaches the higher authorities, such as the Chief Secretary or the Chief Minister, and requests their intervention.
  • This option is likely to lead to a constructive solution to the problem.
  • By bringing the matter to the attention of the higher authorities, Ramesh can ensure that the issue is taken seriously and that appropriate action is taken to address it.
  • This option also allows Ramesh to remain within the system and continue to work towards resolving the issue of illegal migration.
(c) Critical analysis of options
  • Compliance with the Additional Home Secretary's instructions may help Ramesh maintain his position and promotion prospects, but it would compromise his professional integrity and allow the problem of illegal migration to continue.
  • Refusal to withdraw the report would uphold Ramesh's professional integrity, but it could lead to negative consequences for his career and personal life.
  • Leaking the report to the media or other sources may generate public attention and pressure the government to act, but it could also have negative consequences for Ramesh and his family.
  • Resignation would make a strong statement about Ramesh's commitment to professional ethics, but it would also remove him from the system and potentially make it more difficult for him to influence policy decisions.
(d) Ethical dilemmas faced by Ramesh:
  • Balancing personal and professional responsibilities: Ramesh faces the challenge of addressing the issue of illegal migration while dealing with his mother's illness and his children's education.
  • Upholding integrity versus self-interest: Ramesh must decide whether to prioritize the integrity of his role and the well-being of the state over potential personal repercussions.
  • Navigating conflicting instructions: Ramesh receives contradictory instructions from the Additional Home Secretary and is confronted with the ethical dilemma of choosing between complying with the directive or standing by his findings
(e) To combat the menace of infiltration of illegal migrants from the neighbouring country, the government can take several policy measures.
  • Strengthening border security and surveillance - deploy advanced technologies, and increase the presence of security personnel at borders
  • Improving the documentation process to prevent forgery – Example, QR codes
  • Increasing penalties for those involved in illegal migration – Fine and imprisonment
  • Creating legal pathways for migration that meet the needs of the economy and society
  • Work with international organizations and neighbouring countries to address the root causes of migration, such as poverty, conflict, and lack of opportunities.
  • Public education campaigns can also help raise awareness about the dangers of illegal migration and the importance of respecting the law.
9. The Supreme Court has banned mining in the Aravalli Hills to stop degradation the forest cover and to maintain ecological balance. However, the stone mining to still prevalent in the border district of the affected State with connivance of certain corrupt forest officials and politicians. Young and dynamic SP who was recently posted in the affected district promised to himself to stop this menace. In one of his surprise checks with his team, he found loaded truck with stone trying to escape the mining area. He tried to stop the truck but the truck driver overrun the police officer, killing him on the spot and thereafter managed to flee. Police filed FIR but no breakthrough was achieved in the case for almost three months. Ashok who was the Investigative Journalist working with leading TV channel, suo moto started investigating the case. Within one month, Ashok got breakthrough by interacting with local people, stone mining mafia and government officials. He prepared his investigative story and presented to the CMD of the TV channel. He exposed in his investigative report the complete nexus of stone mafia working with blessing of corrupt police and civil officials and politicians. The politician who was involved in the mafia was no one else but local MLA who was considered to be very close to the Chief Minister. After going through the investigative report, the CMD advised Ashok to drop the idea of making the story public through electronic media. He informed that the local MLA was not only the relative of the owner of the TV channel but also had unofficially 20 percent share in the channel. The CMD further informed Ashok that his further promotion and hike in pay will be taken care of in addition the soft loan of 10 lakhs which he has taken from the TV channel for his son’s chronic disease will be suitably adjusted if he hands over the investigative report to him.
(a) What are the options available with Ashok to cope up with the situation?
(b) Critically evaluate/examine each of the options identified by Ashok.
(c) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Ashok?
(d) Which of the options, do you think, would be the most appropriate for Ashok to adopt and why?
(e) In the above scenario, what type of training would you suggest for police officers posted to such districts where stone mining illegal activities are rampant? (250 words)
This case highlights the challenges in fighting corruption and emphasizes the importance of transparency and ethics in addressing such issues for the betterment of society.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) The options available with Ashok
  • Ignore the pressure and release the investigative report: exposing the nexus
  • Stay silent and comply: hand over the investigative report to the TV channel CMD, as advised, and drop the idea of making the story public.
  • Seek external support: Ashok can reach out to external media outlets, regulatory authorities, or investigative agencies
  • Resign from his job: Ashok can choose to resign from his job and release the report independently. This would give him the freedom to report the truth without any fear of reprisal.
(b) Merits and demerits of the options
  • Releasing report could help in exposing the nexus of the stone mafia, corrupt officials, and politicians. But it could lead to Ashok being targeted. There is also a risk of losing his job and credibility.
  • Staying silent compromises journalistic integrity and enables the corrupt individuals to continue their illegal activities without facing consequences. It prioritizes personal benefits over the public interest and may perpetuate a culture of corruption.
  • Seeking external support provides an avenue for independent investigation and intervention, ensuring that the matter is addressed by external authorities. It may enhance the chances of justice and hold the responsible individuals accountable.
  • Resigning from his job and releasing the report independently could lead to financial difficulties for Ashok and his family. There is also a risk that the report may not get the necessary attention and impact if it is released independently.
(c) The ethical dilemmas faced by Ashok
  • Upholding journalistic integrity: dilemma of maintaining his professional duty as an investigative journalist and exposing the truth, or compromising his integrity by suppressing the report for personal gain.
  • Balancing personal interests and public interest: Ashok must consider the potential benefits offered by the TV channel CMD against the ethical responsibility to serve the public interest and expose corruption.
(d) The most appropriate option for Ashok would be to publish the investigative story, exposing the complete nexus of corruption and illicit activities. By doing so, he upholds the principles of journalism, promotes transparency, and contributes to the public's right to know. This option serves the broader interest of justice and accountability, despite potential personal risks or consequences
(e) Type of training for police officers posted to such districts
  • Cover topics such as identifying illegal mining activities, gathering evidence, dealing with corrupt officials, and working with the community to tackle the problem.
  • Cover the legal aspects of the issue and the role of the police in enforcing the law.
  • Regular refresher courses and assessments to ensure that the officers are equipped to handle the challenges posed by such activities.
Ashok should seek legal counsel and protection to ensure the safety of the evidence and expose the corruption. Police officers in districts with rampant illegal mining activities should receive comprehensive training.

10. You have done MBA from a reputed institution three years back but could not get campus placement due to COVID-19 generated recession. However, after a lot of persuasion and series of competitive tests including written and interview, you managed to get a job in a leading shoe company. You have aged parents who are dependent and staying with you. You also recently got married after getting this decent job. You were allotted the Inspection Section which is responsible for clearing the final product. In first one year, you learnt your job well and was appreciated for your performance by the management. The company is doing good business for last five years in domestic market and this year it is decided even to export to Europe and Gulf countries. However, one large consignment to Europe was rejected by their Inspecting Team due to certain poor quality and was sent back. The top management ordered that ibid consignment to be cleared for the domestic market. As a part of Inspecting Team, you observed the glaring poor quality and brought to the knowledge of the Team Commander. However, the top management advised all the members of the team to overlook these defects as the management cannot bear such a huge loss. Rest of the team members except you promptly signed and cleared the consignment for domestic market, overlooking glaring defects. You again brought to the knowledge of the Team Commander that such consignment, if cleared even for domestic market, will tarnish the image and reputation of the company and will be counter-productive in the long run. However, you were further advised by the top management that if you do not clear the consignment, the company will not hesitate to terminate your services citing certain innocuous reasons.

(a) Under the given conditions, what are the options available to you as a member of the Inspecting Team?

(b) Critically evaluate each of the options listed by you.

(c) What option would you adopt and why?

(d) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by you?

(e) What can be the consequences of overlooking the observations raised by the Inspecting Team?

(250 words)

This is a case of poor-quality standards and discrimination shown by a footwear company. As a member of Inspection team, I must take a decision.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Options available to you as a member of the Inspecting Team
  • Clear the consignment as directed by the top management, ignoring the glaring defects.
  • Refuse to clear the consignment and risk losing your job.
  • Report the issue to the higher authorities in the company or relevant government authorities.
  • Look for alternative jobs and quit the company.
(b) Pros and cons of each option
  • Option 1: Clearing the consignment will keep your job secure, but it will go against professional ethics and could harm the company's reputation in the long run.
  • Option 2: Refusing to clear the consignment will uphold your professional ethics, but it will put my job at risk and could also harm financial stability.
  • Option 3: Reporting the issue to the higher authorities in the company or relevant government authorities will uphold professional ethics, but it may not guarantee job security and could also invite retaliation from the top management.
  • Option 4: Looking for alternative jobs and quitting the company will allow to uphold professional ethics and move to a better work environment, but it may take time to find a new job, and it could also affect financial stability.
(c) The most appropriate option
  • To refuse to clear the consignment and explain to the management why it goes against your professional ethics.
  • I can also suggest redesigning and remodelling the shoes under a different economy segment of the company.
  • If the top management does not relent, the issue should be reported to higher authorities or relevant government authorities.
  • Upholding professional ethics is important for long-term career growth, and the consequences of overlooking glaring defects could have long-term negative impacts on the company's reputation.
(d) The ethical dilemmas faced
  • Balancing personal and financial responsibilities with professional integrity.
  • Navigating the pressure to compromise on quality for short-term gains.
  • Considering the potential impact on the company's reputation and customer trust.
  • Evaluating the implications of job security and potential termination.
(e) Overlooking the glaring defects
  • Harm the company's reputation in the long run - Allowing poor-quality products can tarnish image and get negative reviews.
  • Loss of customers- resulting in a loss of market share and decreased customer loyalty.
  • legal issues and financial losses - legal liabilities, lawsuits, and penalties from regulatory bodies
  • Affect employee ethics and work-culture - Overlooking quality issues can lead to demotivated employees and potential employee turnover.
Upholding professional ethics and reporting the issue could help the company improve its quality control and maintain its reputation in the long run

11. Rakesh was working as a Joint Commissioner in Transport department of a city. As a part of his job profile, among others, he was entrusted with the task of overseeing the control and functioning of City Transport Department. A case strike by drivers’ union of City Transport Department over the issue of compensation to a driver who died on duty while driving the bus came up before him for decision in the matter.

He gathered that the driver (deceased) was plying Bus No. 528 which passed through busy and congested roads of the city. It so happened that near an intersection on the way, there was an accident involving a middle-aged man. It was found that there was altercation between the driver and the car driver. Heated arguments between them led to fight and the driver gave him a a blow. Lots of passersby had gathered and tried to intervene but without success. Eventually, both of them were badly injured and profusely bleeding and were taken to the nearby hospital. The driver succumbed to the injuries and could not be saved. The middle-aged driver’s condition was also critical but after a day, he recovered and was discharged. Police had immediately come to the spot and FIR was registered. Police investigation revealed that the quarrel in was started by the bus driver and he had resorted to physical violence. There was an exchange of blows between them.

The City Transport Department management is considering of not giving any extra compensation to the driver’s (deceased) family. The family is very aggrieved. depressed and agitated against the discriminatory and non-sympathetic approach of the City Transport Department management. The bus driver (deceased) was 52 years of age, was survived by his wife and two school-college going daughters. He was the sole earner of the family. The City Transport Department workers’ union took up this case and when found no favourable response from the management, decided to go on strike. The union’s demand was twofold. First was full extra compensation as given to other drivers who died on duty and secondly employment to one family member. The strike has continued for 10 days and the deadlock remains.

(a) What are the options available to Rakesh to meet the above situation?

(b) Critically examine each of the options identified by Rakesh

(c) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by Rakesh?

(d) What course of action would Rakesh adopt to diffuse the above situation?

(250 words)

The case presents a complex situation involving the death of a bus driver during an altercation, leading to a strike by the drivers' union and a standoff between the union, the deceased driver's family, and the City Transport Department management regarding compensation.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Options available to Rakesh to meet the situation
  • Approve the union's demands and provide full extra compensation to the deceased driver's family, along with employment for one family member.
  • Reject the union's demands and maintain the current policy of compensation for drivers who died on duty.
  • Initiate a dialogue with the union and the deceased driver's family to understand their concerns and explore possible solutions.
  • Seek legal advice to determine the appropriate course of action in line with the law and department policies.
(b) Option 1. Approve the union's demands
  • Demonstrates empathy and support
  • Appease the union and end the strike.
  • Maintains a positive public image for Department
  • Sets a precedent for similar demands
  • May strain the department's financial resources.
Option 2. Reject the union's demands – usual compensation
  • Upholds consistency in compensation policies.
  • Demonstrates adherence to established rules and regulations.
  • Avoids potential strain on the department's finances.
  • Escalates the strike and leads to prolonged unrest
  • Damage the department's public image and reputation.
Option 3. Initiate a dialogue with the union and the deceased driver's family
  • Demonstrates a willingness to listen and understand the grievances
  • Provides an opportunity to find a mutually agreeable solution.
  • Promotes transparency and open communication.
  • Dialogue may take time
  • Requires careful negotiation and compromise
  • No guarantee of reaching a satisfactory resolution.
Option 4. Seek legal advice to determine the appropriate course of action.
  • Ensures compliance with legal obligations and regulations.
  • Provides a clear framework for decision-making.
  • Reduces the risk of potential legal disputes in the future.
  • Legal advice may limit the flexibility of decision-making.
  • May not address the emotional and social aspects of the situation.
(c) Ethical dilemmas faced by Rakesh
  • Balancing the financial constraints of the department with the needs and expectations of the deceased driver's family.
  • Addressing the potential discrimination concerns raised by the union and ensuring fairness in compensation policies.
  • Maintaining the integrity and reputation of the City Transport Department while making a decision that impacts the workers' morale and public perception.
(d) Course of action Rakesh may adopt to diffuse the situation
  • Rakesh should initiate a dialogue with the union and the deceased driver's family to understand their concerns and grievances.
  • He should demonstrate empathy and transparency, explaining the department's financial limitations and legal obligations.
  • Rakesh can explore options for providing a reasonable compensation package within the available resources and consider offering support services to the family.
  • Open communication and a collaborative approach may help in diffusing the situation and finding a resolution that considers the interests of all stakeholders.
In addition, Rakesh could also recommend that the Transport department review its policies on compensation and provide a uniform compensation package for all drivers who die on duty, irrespective of the circumstances. This will ensure fairness and equity in the treatment of employees and prevent future disputes.

12. You are appointed as an officer heading the section in Environment Pollution Control Board to ensure compliance and its follow-up. In that region, there were large number of small and medium industries which had been granted clearance. You learnt that these industries provide employment to many migrant worker. Most of the industrial units have got environmental clearance certificate in their possession. The environmental clearance seeks to curb industries and projects that supposedly hamper environment and living species in the region, But in practice. most of these units remain to be polluting units in several ways like air, water and soil pollution. As such, local people encountered persistent health problems.

It was confirmed that majority of the industries were violating environmental compliance. You issued notice to all the industrial units to apply for fresh environmental clearance certificate from the competent authority. However, your action met with hostile response from a section of the industrial units, other vested interest persons and a section of the local politicians. The workers also became hostile to you as they felt that your action would lead to the closure of these industrial units, and the resultant unemployment will lead to insecurity uncertainty in their livelihood. Many owners of the industries approached you with the plea that you should not initiate harsh action as it would compel them their units, and cause huge financial loss, shortage of their products in the market. These would obviously add to the sufferings of the labourers and the consumers alike. The labour union also sent you representation requesting against the closure of the units. You simultaneously started receiving threats from unknown corners. You however received supports from some of your colleagues, who advised you to act freely to ensure environmental compliance. Local NGOs also came to your support and they demanded the closure of the polluting units immediately.

(a) What are the options available to you under the given situation?

(b) Critically examine the options listed by you.

(c) What type of mechanism would you suggest to ensure environmental compliance?

(d)What are the ethical dilemmas you faced in exercising your option?

(250 words)

The situation involves the enforcement of environmental compliance. There is environmental violation on one side and threats against action on the other for the environment officer to tackle.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a)Options are available to me as the officer heading the section in Environment Pollution Control Board
  • Strictly enforce the environmental laws and regulations, and initiate legal action against the violators.
  • Hold discussions with the owners of the industrial units to persuade them to adopt measures to reduce pollution and comply with environmental regulations.
  • Encourage the industrial units to switch to cleaner technologies and practices to reduce pollution.
  • Work with the local government to find alternative sources of employment for the workers who may lose their jobs if the polluting units are shut down.
  • Collaborate with the local NGOs and community organizations to raise awareness about the health impacts of pollution and advocate for a cleaner environment.
(b) Critical analysis of options
  • Option 1 is the most effective way to ensure compliance with environmental laws, but it may lead to hostility and resistance from the owners of the industrial units and the workers.
  • Option 2 and 3 may be more acceptable to the owners of the industrial units, but it may not be sufficient to bring about significant change.
  • Option 4 may help mitigate the impact on the workers, but it may not address the root cause of pollution.
  • Option 5 may help build public support for environmental compliance, but it may not be sufficient to bring about immediate change.
(c) Mechanism to ensure environmental compliance
  • Mechanism that includes regular monitoring and reporting of industrial emissions. Example, surprise checks.
  • Imposition of penalties for non-compliance
  • Support for the adoption of cleaner technologies and practices should be put in place. Example, tax incentives
  • Engagement with the owners of the industrial units and the workers to promote a better understanding of the environmental impacts of their activities.
  • Foster collaboration between the Environment Pollution Control Board, industry associations, NGOs, and other stakeholders to collectively work towards environmental protection
(d) The ethical dilemmas faced
  • Balancing environmental protection with economic considerations and the potential impact on livelihoods.
  • Dealing with resistance, hostility, and threats from industrial units and vested interest groups.
  • Ensuring fairness and equal treatment to all stakeholders while upholding environmental regulations.
  • Striving for long-term environmental sustainability while addressing immediate concerns and pressures
The case study highlights the challenges of environmental compliance. Resolving the situation requires careful consideration and sustainable solutions



1. (a) Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix. (150 words)
Ethical traits of a civil servant directly impact their ability to serve the public's interest with integrity and professionalism.
5 ethical traits to assess a civil servant's performance
  • Integrity: Integrity ensures that a civil servant acts honestly, truthfully, and consistently in their interactions with the public.
    E.g.: T. N. Seshan, former Chief Election Commissioner of India, he introduced several reforms to ensure free and fair elections
  • Impartiality: Impartiality guarantees that a civil servant treats all individuals fairly and without bias, regardless of their personal characteristics or connections.
    E.g.: R. Chidambaram served as principal scientific adviser from 2002-18 serving different Prime Ministers and governments equally.
  • Accountability - the willingness to take responsibility for one's actions and decisions, and to be held accountable by others for their impact.
    E.g.: In 2018, IAS officer Rohini SindhuriDasari took a tough stand against illegal mining in Karnataka, despite facing political pressure to turn a blind eye.
  • Compassion: the ability to serve the weaker sections with empathy and commitment.
    E.g.: R. Subrahmanyam, former Chief Secretary of Andhra Pradesh, is known for his work in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • Objectivity - the ability to make decisions and take actions based on facts and evidence, rather than personal biases or emotions.
    E.g.: Raghuram Rajan, former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, is known for his data-driven approach to policy making.
These traits ensure that a civil servant fulfils his professional obligation even in adverse situations. The training programme like “mission karmayogi” for a civil servant should be a mix of ethical traits, procedural rules and practical situations.
1. (b) Identify ten essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant. Describe the ways and means to prevent non-ethical behaviour in public servants. (150 words)
Values are what is considered important by an individual or an organization. Examples include courage, honesty, freedom, innovation.
Essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant
  • Integrity: Upholding honesty, ethical conduct, and moral principles in all actions and decisions.
  • Accountability: Taking responsibility for one's actions and being answerable for the outcomes.
  • Transparency: Operating in an open and accessible manner, sharing information, and justifying decisions.
  • Objectivity: Making decisions based on evidence, facts, and impartial analysis, avoiding personal biases.
  • Fairness: Treating all individuals equally and without discrimination, ensuring justice and equity.
  • Respect: Valuing and considering the perspectives, rights, and dignity of all stakeholders.
  • Commitment to the public good: Prioritizing the welfare and interests of the public above personal gain.
  • Professionalism: Demonstrating competence, expertise, and adherence to high standards of performance.
  • Collaboration: Working cooperatively with colleagues, stakeholders, and the public to achieve common goals.
  • Adaptability: Being open to change, innovation, and learning to effectively respond to evolving challenges.
Measures to be implemented to prevent non-ethical behaviour in public servants
  • Comprehensive training programs- emphasize ethical standards, dilemmas, values, and codes of conduct.
  • System of accountability and internal controls- clear guidelines on reporting unethical behaviour, ensuring whistle-blower protection, and implementing disciplinary measures for violations.
  • Strong ethical leadership-modelled by senior officials and a culture of integrity should be promoted throughout the organization.
  • Transparent and independent oversight mechanisms, such as an ombudsman or an ethics commission.
By combining these preventive measures, public servants can be motivated and guided to uphold high ethical standards and maintain public trust.
2. (a) Impact of digital technology as a reliable source of input for rational decision making is a debatable issue. Critically evaluate with a suitable example. (150 words)
While digital technology offers vast amounts of data and information that can inform decision-making processes. But its reliability and suitability can vary significantly.
Digital technology as a reliable source of input for rational decision making
  • Government digital advisories on covid-19.
  • People able to address their concerns to government via mygov application.
  • Predicting weather forcasting and disaster management
Challenges to digital technology as input to policy decision making
  • Data Quality and Reliability: Data may be incomplete, inaccurate, biased, or outdated, leading to flawed policy recommendations and decisions.
  • Digital Divide: Despite the widespread adoption of digital technology, there are still significant disparities in access to and proficiency in using digital tools and platforms.
  • Digital inputs can be influenced by fake news, misinformation, and manipulation.
  • Ethical Considerations: Digital technology raises ethical dilemmas in policy decision making. Issues like privacy, consent, bias
Thus, it is essential to critically assess the sources of digital information, consider multiple perspectives, and complement digital inputs with other reliable sources, such as expert opinions and traditional surveys
Effective decision making requires a balanced approach that combines the advantages of digital technology with critical thinking and human judgment to ensure the accuracy and validity of the inputs.
2. (b) Besides domain knowledge, a public official needs innovativeness and creativity of a high order as well, while resolving ethical dilemmas. Discuss with a suitable example. (150 words)
Ethical dilemmas often require thinking beyond conventional solutions and finding innovative approaches to address complex issues in the public sector.
Importance of domain knowledge
  • Helps understand nuances and dynamics of particular field.
    E.g.: E. Sreedharan, metro man of India, is a civil engineer by education.
  • Government functions have evolved becoming more specialized and sophisticated.
  • Helps in improving quality of decisions and service delivery.
    E.g.: Dr. Rajendra Bharud, the collector of Nandurbar, was better able to manage second wave of COVID-19
Importance of innovation and creativity
  • Helps to break free from conventional frameworks and develop new strategies that reconcile conflicting interests, find common ground, and navigate complex ethical dilemmas effectively.
  • It enhances their ability to find innovative solutions that align with ethical principles and achieve positive outcomes for society as a whole
    E.g.: IAS Shashanka Ala, as deputy commissioner of Lawngtlai, Mizoram saw that the district was largely cut off which affected nutritional requirements of children. She initiated “Kan Sikul, Kan Huan” or “My School, My farm” where nutrition gardens were set up in anganwadis and schools.
This approach requires out-of-the-box thinking, exploring alternative options, and considering diverse stakeholders' perspectives.
3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you?
(a) “Every work has got to pass through hundreds of difficulties before succeeding. Those that persevere will see the light, sooner or later” – Swami Vivekananda (150 words)
This quotation by Swami Vivekananda emphasizes the importance of perseverance and resilience in the face of challenges.
Every work has got to pass through difficulties before succeeding. Those who persevere will win
  • Obstacles and hardships are an integral part of the journey towards success. It acknowledges that setbacks and hurdles are common, and one must be prepared to encounter and overcome them.
    E.g.: M S Dhoni in becoming well known cricketer
  • Significance of persistence and those individuals who maintain their determination and continue to work towards their goals, despite setbacks, will eventually achieve success.
    E.g.: India’s space program, which began in the 1960s, faced numerous challenges and setbacks, including limited funding, technology gaps, and international sanctions. However, Indian scientists and engineers persevered and continued to work towards their goal and achieved global recognition.
  • Difficulties grind the person to his better forms
    E.g.: Edison in discovering Bulb
This quotation serves as a reminder that setbacks and challenges are normal, and success requires unwavering perseverance. It encourages individuals to stay committed to their path, maintain a positive mindset, and keep pushing forward, knowing that the light of success awaits them, regardless of the difficulties faced along the way.
3. (b) “We can never obtain peace in the outer world until and unless we obtain peace within ourselves” – Dalai Lama(150 words)
The above quote conveys the idea that peace in the world around us is intricately linked to the presence of peace within ourselves.
Obtain peace in the outer world when we obtain peace within ourselves
  • Attempting to create peace solely through external means, such as political or social actions, will be futile if inner peace is lacking.
    E.g.: even with stringent laws, people will engage in violence if hatred persists in them
  • By cultivating inner calm, compassion, and a sense of contentment, we become agents of peace who can positively influence the external world.
    E.g.: practice of yoga is believed to help individuals attain inner peace. Mahatma Gandhi believed that true peace could only be achieved by cultivating love and compassion within oneself, and by practicing non-violence in all aspects of life.
Overall, this quotation serves as a reminder that the pursuit of peace should begin within ourselves. It encourages self-reflection, mindfulness, and the development of inner qualities that promote harmony and understanding. Only by fostering inner peace can we contribute to a more peaceful and harmonious world, as our actions and interactions with others will be rooted in a genuine desire for peace and well-being.
3. (c) “Life doesn’t make any sense without interdependence. We need each other, and the sooner we learn that it is better for us all” – Erik Erikson (150 words)
The quote conveys the idea that our existence and purpose are intricately tied to our interconnectedness with others. It suggests that recognizing and embracing our interdependence is not only essential for our individual well-being but also for the collective good of society.
Interdependence and betterment of all
  • Our lives lack meaning and purpose when we fail to acknowledge the interconnections and interrelationships that bind us together.
    E.g.: island nations facing threats of submergence needs support of other nations.
  • Recognizing our reliance on one another and nurturing positive and supportive relationships, we create a better world for everyone involved. Cooperation, empathy, and collaboration become catalysts for growth, well-being, and progress.
    E.g.: joint family system and celebrations of festivals in India bring inter-dependence.
Quotation encourages us to move beyond self-centeredness and embrace the reality that our lives are enriched when we recognize and value the interconnected web of relationships we share with others.
4. (a) Attitude is an important component that goes as input in the development of human beings. How to build a suitable attitude needed for a public servant? ( 150 words)
Attitude is the way we think, feel and act. Building a suitable attitude for a public servant involves intentional efforts to develop the necessary qualities and mindset required for effective and ethical service.
Attitude in the development of human beings
  • Growth Mindset: Having a growth mindset is an attitude that believes in the ability to learn, grow, and improve through effort and perseverance.
    E.g.: M S Dhoni as Indian captain
  • Optimism: Optimism refers to a positive outlook and the belief that favorable outcomes are possible. Individuals with an optimistic attitude tend to approach life's challenges with hope, resilience, and a belief in their ability to overcome obstacles.
    E.g.: Sreedharan in reconstruction of Pamban bridge
  • Open-Mindedness: Open-mindedness is an attitude characterized by a willingness to consider different perspectives, ideas, and experiences. Individuals with an open-minded attitude are receptive to new information, diverse viewpoints, and alternative ways of thinking.
Steps to cultivate a suitable attitude
  • Training and Development Programs: Help them develop the necessary skills and attitudes required for their job. Example, training programs on ethics and integrity, conflict resolution
  • Role Modelling: Leaders and senior public servants can serve as role models for their subordinates - inspire their team members to emulate them.
  • Reward and Recognition: Help reinforce positive attitudes and behaviours. Example, awards for innovative solutions.
  • Accountability: They should take ownership of their work and be transparent about their decisions.
  • Continuous Learning: Public servants should be committed to continuous learning and development. They should keep themselves updated with the latest trends and best practices in their field of work.
Building a suitable attitude for a public servant requires a multifaceted approach. It is an ongoing process that requires self-awareness, a commitment to growth, and a genuine desire to serve the public with integrity and professionalism.
4. (b) In case of a crisis of conscience does emotional intelligence help to overcome the same without compromising the ethical and moral stand that you are likely to follow? Critically examine. (150 words)
A crisis of conscience is a situation when people are confused between right and wrong. People often worry about their actions that may turn unfair or morally wrong in such situations.
Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to recognize, understand, and manage one's own and other’s emotions.
EI in helping to solve Crisis of conscience
  • EI helps in better understanding of the situation and long-term consequences of one’s action
  • Emotional intelligence gives internal strength to individuals that can enable them to act with integrity and withstand adverse situations. Example: Crisis of conscience is case of coerced corruption
  • Emotionally intelligent persons can persuade others and resolve conflicts. Example: crisis of conflict for a DM arising due to diverging demands by different communities.
  • EI helps in controlling selfish desires arising in cases like public vs. personal interest.
EI alone may not be sufficient to resolve complex moral dilemmas. Here, individuals may need to rely on additional tools, such as laws, code of conduct, guidance from mentors to resolve conflicts. Ultimately, EI serves as a valuable tool in managing emotions, and should be complemented by other source of guidance to ensure that one's ethical and moral stand is upheld without compromise.
5. (a) “Refugees should not be turned back to the country where they would face prosecution or human rights violation.” Examine the statement with reference to the ethical dimension being violated by the nation claiming to be democratic with an open society. (150 words)
The statement highlights the ethical dimension of not turning refugees back to countries where they would face prosecution or human rights violations. Rohingyan refugees are turned back to Bangladesh by India recently
Ethical principles violating by refusing to provide protection
  • Human Rights: It violates the right to life, liberty, and security of person, as well as the right to seek asylum from persecution.
  • Non-Discrimination: Denying them equal treatment and protection based on their nationality or circumstances.
  • Humanitarianism: Ethically, a democratic and open society should prioritize the well-being and safety of vulnerable individuals through principles of compassion,
  • Principle of non-refoulement: Denying protection subjects them to further harm or placing them in situations where their basic human rights are violated.
As a democratic and open society, a nation should uphold these ethical principles and fulfil its moral obligation to provide protection and support to refugees fleeing persecution and human rights violations. Example, Canada welcomed Syrian refugees. By doing so, the nation contributes to the global promotion of human rights, justice, and humanitarian values.
5. (b) Should impartial and being non-partisan be considered indispensable qualities to make a successful civil servant? Discuss with illustrations. (150 words)
Impartiality refers to the state of being fair and unbiased and Non-partisanship refers to the state of not being affiliated with or biased toward any particular political party or ideology. Impartiality and being non-partisan qualities ensure fairness, objectivity, and the ability to serve the public interest without bias or favouritism.
Reasons why impartiality and non-partisanship are crucial in making a successful civil servant
  • Upholding the Rule of Law: Impartiality ensures that they treat all individuals equally and without discrimination, regardless of their political affiliations or beliefs.
  • Public Trust and Confidence: When civil servants are perceived as unbiased and neutral, it enhances the legitimacy of their actions and decisions.
  • Effective Policy Implementation: Impartiality allows civil servants to implement policies and programs objectively, based on their merits rather than personal or political considerations.
    E.g.: In government procurement process, an impartial civil servant evaluates bids solely based on objective criteria, without any external influences. This ensures transparency and fairness.
    E.g.: During elections, civil servants involved in the electoral process maintain non-partisanship to ensure a level playing field for candidates. Their non-partisanship guarantees integrity and credibility of elections.
Thus, impartiality and non-partisanship are vital for good governance and to ensure civil servants serve the best interests of the public and maintain their integrity.
6. (a) An independent and empowered social audit mechanism is an absolute must in every sphere of public service, including the judiciary, to ensure performance, accountability and ethical conduct. Elaborate. (150 words)
Social audit is a process of assessing, monitoring, and evaluating the performance of public services and programs by involving citizens and civil society organizations.
Importance of independent and empowered social audit mechanism
  • Performance Evaluation: An objective assessment helps evaluate the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of services provided, ensuring continuous improvement and responsiveness to societal needs.
  • Accountability: Social audits hold public institutions accountable by involving citizens and civil society organizations. It fosters public trust in the judiciary and strengthens the rule of law.
  • Ethical Conduct: It helps identify and address any lapses in ethical conduct, ensuring that judges and judicial officers uphold the highest standards of integrity, fairness, and impartiality.
  • Public Participation: Social audits enable citizens to voice their concerns, provide feedback, and contribute to the evaluation of public services.
For example Swachh Bharat Mission incorporates social audits that involve community members inspecting the construction and usage of toilets, assessing the effectiveness of the program, and identifying any discrepancies or issues. By incorporating an independent and empowered social audit mechanism, the judiciary, like other public institutions, can ensure performance, accountability, and ethical conduct.
6. (b) “Integrity is a value that empowers the human being’’. Justify with suitable illustration. (150 words)
Integrity is defined as behaving in a fair and transparent manner consistently honouring one's commitments to uphold public service values. A person with integrity gets empowered through his strong character build by consistently following ethical and moral principles.
Integrity empowering the human being
  • High standards of professional integrity ensures credibility
    E.g.: Lal Bahadur Shastri,resigned as a railway minister, taking responsibility for a train accident. His integrity was instrumental in his becoming the 2nd PM of India.
  • Integrity in public life helps to establish transparency and efficiency. 
     E.g.: T.N Seshan, 10th Chief Election Commissionerof India, was chastised by crony media and corrupt politicians for his reforms in electoral practices.
  • Integrity make better leaders  Mahatma Gandhi revoked the Non-Cooperation movement after the Chauri Chaura incident.
  • Integrity in sports ensure credibility Sachin Tendulkar, decided to walk off the ground,after the appeal by the bowler, even though he was declared as not-out by the empire. Although, he could not make his hundred, his integrity established him as an honourable sportsman, respected worldwide.
Integrity helps an individual to resolve the conflict between one’s desires on one hand and one’s values, beliefs principles on the other hand. It might appear as self-defeating momentarily, but it empowers the human being in the longer run.


7. Sunil is a young civil servant and has a reputation for his competence, integrity, dedication and relentlessness in pursuit of difficult and onerous jobs. Considering his profile, he was picked up by his bosses to handle a very challenging and sensitive assignment. He was posted in a tribal-dominated district notorious for illegal sand mining. Excavating sand from river belts and transporting it through trucks and selling them in the black market was rampant. This illegal sand mining mafia was operating with the support of local functionaries and tribal musclemen who in turn were bribing selected poor tribals and had kept the tribals under fear and intimidation.

Sunil being a sharp and energetic officer immediately grasped the ground realities and the modus operandi followed by the mafia through their devious and dubious mechanism. On making inquiries, he gathered that some of their own office employees are in hand and glove with them and have developed close unholy nexus. Sunil initiated stringent action against them and started conducting raids on their illegal operations of the movement of trucks filled with sand. The mafia got rattled as not many officers in the past had taken such strong steps against the mafia. Some of the office employees who were allegedly close to the mafia informed them that the officer is determined to clean up the mafia’s illegal sand mining operations in that district and may cause them irreparable damage.

The mafia turned hostile and launched a counter-offensive. The tribal musclemen and mafia started threatening him with dire consequences. His family (wife and old mother) were stalked and were under virtual surveillance and thus causing mental torture, agony and stress to all of them. The matter assumed serious proportions when a muscleman came to his office and threatened him to stop raids etc., otherwise, his fate will not be different than some of his predecessors (ten years back one officer was killed by the mafia)

a) Identify the different options available to Sunil in attending this situation

b) Critically evaluate each of the options listed by you.

c) Which of the above, do you think, would be most appropriate for Sunil to adopt and why? (250 words)


In this case study, Sunil, a young civil servant, is assigned the task of combating illegal sand mining in a tribal-dominated district where he faces threats and harassment for doing his duty.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Different options available to Sunil in attending this situation
  • Continuing the raids and investigations: Sunil can choose to persist with his raids, investigations, and efforts to dismantle the illegal sand mining mafia despite the threats and intimidation.
  • Seeking support from higher authorities: Sunil can approach his superiors or higher authorities seek protection and support in dealing with the threats and intimidation.
  • Gathering evidence and building cases: collecting substantial evidence against the mafia, their supporters, and the employees involved in the nexus.
  • Relocating or requesting a transfer: This option prioritizes personal safety and well-being
(b) Critical evaluation of each option
  • Continuing the raids and investigations: This option demonstrates Sunil's commitment to his duties and the rule of law. However, it also exposes him and his family to significant risks, including physical harm.
  • Seeking support from higher authorities: This can provide additional resources, protection, and guidance. However, the effectiveness of this option depends on the responsiveness and willingness of the higher authorities to address the situation.
  • Gathering evidence and building cases: This can strengthen the legal actions against the mafia and their collaborators. However, this option requires time and resources, and it may expose Sunil to further risks.
  • Relocating or requesting a transfer: Ensures safety but cause potential disruption to his career and the loss of an opportunity to combat corruption in the current district.
(c) The most appropriate option for Sunil to adopt would be a combination of options. Sunil should continue with the raids and investigations while simultaneously seeking support from higher authorities and requesting security arrangements for himself and his family.
This combined approach allows Sunil to maintain his determination to fight against the mafia while ensuring the safety and protection of himself and his family. It maximizes the chances of success in dismantling the illegal sand mining operations and holding those involved accountable, while minimizing the risks faced by Sunil and his loved ones.

8. You are Vice Principal of a degree college in one of the middle-class towns. The principal has recently retired and management is looking for his replacement. There are also feelers that the management may promote you as Principal. In the meantime, during the annual examination, the flying squad which came from the university caught two students red-handed involving in unfair means. A senior lecturer of the college was personally helping these students in this act. This senior lecturer also happens to be close to the management. One of the students was the son of a local politician who was responsible for getting college affiliated to the present reputed university. The second student was the son of a local businessman who has donated maximum funds for running the college. You immediately informed the management regarding this unfortunate incident. The management told you to resolve the issue with the flying squad at any cost. They further said that such an incident will not only tarnish the image of the college but also the politician and the businessman are very important personalities for the functioning of the college. You were also given hint that your further promotion to Principal depends on your capability in resolving this issue with the flying squad. In the meantime, you were intimidated by your administrative officer that certain members of the student union are protesting outside the college gate against the senior lecturer and the students involved in this incident are demanding strict action against defaulters.

a) Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case.

b) Critically examine the options available with you as Vice Principal. What option will you adopt and why? (250 words)

In the given case study, the Vice Principal of a college is faced with an ethical dilemma involving unfair means during examinations and the involvement of a senior lecturer who has close connections with influential individuals.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Ethical issues involved
  • Academic Integrity: The involvement of students in unfair means and the senior lecturer aiding them.
  • Nepotism and favouritism: The fact that one student is the son of a local politician and the other is the son of a prominent businessman suggests the possibility of favouritism.
  • Misuse of Power: The management's pressure to resolve the issue at any cost, considering the reputation of influential individuals
  • Conflict of Interest: The close relationship between the senior lecturer and the management, as well as the potential impact on the promotion prospects of the Vice Principal.
(b) The options available to the Vice Principal in this situation
Resolving the issue with the flying squad by concealing or downplaying the misconduct:
  • Protects the reputation of the college in short term
  • Secure the Vice Principal's promotion
  • Maintains a harmonious relationship with influential individuals involved.
  • Compromises academic integrity and ethical standards
  • Damages the trust of students, faculty, and the community.
  • Sets a harmful precedent for future incidents of academic misconduct.
  • Could lead to long-term consequences if the truth is eventually exposed
Reporting the incident truthfully to the flying squad: Positives:
  • Upholds academic integrity and ethical principles.
  • Demonstrates fairness and justice to all students.
  • Preserves the reputation of the college in the long term.
  • Fosters a culture of honesty and integrity.
  • Builds trust and credibility among students, faculty, and the community.
  • Risks potential promotion.
  • Could result in backlash from influential individuals.
  • Requires a thorough investigation, which may consume time and resources.
Resigning from the position: Positives:
  • Better than compromising integrity
  • Not being part of the nexus
  • Save from any backlashes from influential individuals.
  • Sets a bad precedent.
  • Lose out on an opportunity to stop academic misconduct.
  • Lose out on student’s support.
The most appropriate option for the Vice Principal to adopt is to report the incident truthfully to the flying squad. This option upholds the principles of integrity, transparency, and fairness. It sends a clear message that unethical behaviour will not be tolerated within the college.
It is important to prioritize ethical considerations over personal interests or pressures from influential individuals. While this decision may have short-term consequences, it upholds the fundamental values of education, fairness, and ethical conduct. It sets a precedent for maintaining the integrity of the institution and ensures that all students are treated equally and have a fair opportunity to succeed based on merit.

9.  An elevated corridor is being constructed to reduce traffic congestion in the capital of a particular state. You have been selected as project manager of this prestigious project on your professional competence and experience. The deadline is to complete the project in the next two years by 30 June 2021, since the project is to be inaugurated by the Chief Minister before the elections are announced in the second week of July 2021. While carrying out the surprise inspection by the inspecting team, a minor crack was noticed in one of the piers of the elevated corridor possibly due to poor material used. You immediately informed the chief engineer and stopped further work. It was assessed by you that a minimum of three piers of the elevated corridor have to be demolished and reconstructed. But this process will delay the project minimum by four to six months. But the chief engineer overruled the observation of the inspecting team on the ground that it was a minor crack that will not in any way impact the strength and durability of the bridge. He ordered you to overlook the observation of the inspecting team and continue working with the same speed and tempo. He informed you that the minister does not want any delay as he wants the Chief Minister to inaugurate the elevated corridor before the elections are declared. Also informed you that the contractor is a far relative of the minister and he wants him to finish the project. He also gave you a hint that your further promotion as an additional chief engineer is under consideration by the ministry. However, you strongly felt that the minor crack in the pier in the elevated corridor will adversely affect the health and life of the bridge and therefore it will be very dangerous not to repair the elevated corridor.

a) Under the given conditions, what are the options available to you as a project manager?

b) What are the ethical dilemmas being faced by the project manager and his response to overcome such challenges?

c) What are the professional challenges likely to be faced by the project manager and his response to overcome such challenges?

d) What can be the consequences of overlooking the observation raised by the inspecting team?

(250 words)

In this case study, the project manager discovers a minor crack in a pier during an inspection of an elevated corridor construction project. The chief engineer disregards the crack to meet political deadlines, as the contractor is related to the minister. The project manager is concerned about the bridge's safety and durability.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Options available to you as a project manager
  • Follow the chief engineer's orders: This option may allow the project to proceed as scheduled but raises ethical concerns.
  • Insist on repairing the pier: This option prioritizes ethical considerations over meeting political deadlines and ensures the long-term integrity of the infrastructure.
  • Report the issue to higher authorities: Escalate the matter to higher authorities or regulatory bodies responsible for overseeing construction projects.
(b) The ethical dilemmas faced by the project manager in this scenario
  • Balancing the project manager's professional responsibility for quality and safety against political pressures and personal career prospects.
  • Maintaining transparency and integrity in decision-making, despite the influence of the minister and contractor who have personal interests in the project.
  • Upholding the public interest and the well-being of future users of the elevated corridor, even if it means challenging the authority of superiors.
  • Ensuring accountability and avoiding potential legal and moral consequences associated with compromising on safety standards.
  • Balancing the short-term objective of completing the project before the elections with the long-term consequences of overlooking a potential risk.
To overcome these challenges, the project manager should prioritize the safety and integrity of the elevated corridor, advocate for the necessary repairs, and communicate the potential risks associated with overlooking the observed crack. By maintaining professional integrity and being transparent about the potential consequences, the project manager can make an informed and ethical decision.
(c) The professional challenges likely to be faced by the project manager and their responses
  • Communicating the importance of safety and durability to the chief engineer and higher authorities, emphasizing the potential risks associated with not addressing the crack.
  • Building a strong case by gathering technical evidence, conducting further inspections, and consulting with experts to support the need for reconstruction.
  • Negotiating with the minister and contractor by presenting alternatives that prioritize safety without significantly compromising the project timeline.
  • Seeking support from professional networks, industry associations, or regulatory bodies to advocate for adherence to quality standards.
  • Documenting all discussions, decisions, and actions taken to maintain a record of the project manager's commitment to professional integrity and due diligence.
(d) Consequences of overlooking the observation raised by the inspecting team
  • The minor crack in the pier may be an indicator of underlying structural issues that could compromise the strength, durability, and safety of the elevated corridor.
  • Ignoring the observation may lead to catastrophic failures, putting the lives of commuters at risk and leading to significant financial and reputational damages.
  • Overlooking the issue may violate professional ethics and legal obligations related to construction standards and regulations.
  • The project manager could face legal liabilities, loss of professional credibility, and potential criminal charges if an incident were to occur.
  • Furthermore, the reputation of the organization and the trust of the public could be severely damaged, affecting future projects and relationships with stakeholders.

10. The corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has quickly spread to various countries.

As of May 8th, 2020, in India 56342 positive cases of corona had been reported. India with a population of more than 1.35 billion had difficulty in controlling the transmission of corona virus among its population. Multiple strategies became necessary to handle this outbreak. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India raised awareness about this outbreak and to take all necessary actions to control the spread of COVID -19. Indian Government implemented a 55-day lockdown throughout the country to reduce the transmission of the virus. Schools and colleges had shifted to alternative modes of teaching-learning-evaluation and certification. Online mode became popular during these days.

India was not prepared for a sudden onslaught of such a crisis due to limited infrastructure in terms of human resources, money and other facilities needed for taking care of this situation. This disease did not spare anybody irrespective of caste, creed, religion on one hand and ‘have and have not’ on the other. Deficiencies in hospital beds, oxygen cylinders, ambulances, hospital staff and crematorium were the most crucial aspects.

You are a hospital administrator in a public hospital at the time when corona virus had attacked a large number of people and patients were pouring into the hospital day in and day out.

a) What are your criteria and justification for putting your clinical and non-clinical staff to attend to the patients knowing fully well that it is a highly infectious disease and resources and infrastructure are limited?

b) If yours is a private hospital, whether your jurisdiction and decision would remain the same as that of a public hospital?

(250 words)

The case study highlights the challenges faced by a hospital administrator during the COVID-19 pandemic in India.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) As a hospital administrator in a public hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, the criteria and justification for assigning clinical and non-clinical staff to attend to the patients are as follows:
  • Expertise and Training: Assigning staff with relevant expertise and training in infectious diseases, critical care, and emergency medicine ensures that patients receive appropriate and specialized care. This helps maximize the utilization of available resources.
  • Risk Assessment and Protection: Assigning staff with access to necessary protective gear like PPE kits minimizes the risk of infection transmission and safeguards their health.
  • Staff Availability and Rotation: Rotating staff members between high-risk and low-risk areas can help manage fatigue, stress, and burnout, ensuring a sustainable workforce.
  • Coordination and Collaboration: Non-clinical staff can provide essential support functions, such as administrative tasks, logistics, and maintenance, which alleviate the burden on clinical staff and allow them to focus on patient care.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation: Regularly assess the performance and well-being of staff members involved in patient care. Provide support mechanisms, such as counselling and mental health services, to address their physical and emotional needs.
(b) In a private hospital, the jurisdiction and decision-making process may differ due to factors such as ownership, financial considerations, and autonomy. While the core principles of patient care and staff safety remain the same, some additional considerations may arise:
  • Financial Constraints: Private hospitals may face financial pressures, as they rely on revenue generation to sustain their operations. This may influence resource allocation decisions.
  • Decision-making Autonomy: Private hospitals have more autonomy in decision-making processes. However, ethical considerations, and medical guidelines should remain at the forefront of decision-making.
  • Resource Mobilization: Private hospitals may have the flexibility to mobilize additional resources through partnerships, collaborations, or fundraising efforts. This can aid in augmenting infrastructure, equipment, and staff capacity to better respond to the crisis.
Despite these differences, the fundamental ethical principles of providing quality care, protecting staff, and ensuring patient safety should guide decision-making in both public and private hospitals.
Prioritizing the well-being of patients and staff members, while making prudent use of available resources, remains crucial in mitigating the impact of the pandemic.

11. A reputed food product company based in India developed a food product for the international market and started exporting the same after getting necessary approvals. The company announced this achievement and also indicated that soon the product will be made available for domestic consumers with almost the same quality and health benefits. Accordingly, the company got its product approved by the domestic competent authority and launched the product in the Indian market. The company could increase its market share over a period of time and earned substantial profit both domestically and internationally. However, the random sample test conducted by the inspecting team found the product being sold domestically in variance with the approval obtained from the competent authority. On further investigation, it was also discovered that the food company was not only selling products that were not meeting the health standard of the country but also selling the rejected export products in the domestic market. This episode adversely affected the reputation and profitability of the food company.

a) What action do you visualize should be taken by the competent authority against the food company for violating the laid down domestic food standard and selling rejected export products in the domestic market?

b) What course of action is available with the food company to resolve the crisis and bring back its lost reputation?

c) Examine the ethical dilemma involved in the case. (250 words)

A food company's violation of domestic food standards and selling rejected export products in the domestic market has resulted in damage to its reputation and profitability. This case study pertains to desire of profitability by violating the rule of law by the private players.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) The competent authority can take the following appropriate actions:
  • Imposing penalties: The amount of the penalty should be commensurate with the severity of the violations.
  • Revoking approvals: This would prohibit the company from continuing to sell the non-compliant product.
  • Legal prosecution: This may involve filing a case in a court of law and seeking appropriate legal remedies.
  • Public disclosure and awareness: The competent authority should inform the public about the violations committed by the food company, ensuring transparency and protecting consumer rights.
(b) The food company can take the following course of action to resolve the crisis and regain its lost reputation:
  • Recall and rectify: This may involve improving the manufacturing process, ensuring quality control, and retesting the products to ensure compliance with domestic standards.
  • Apologize and compensate: Additionally, the company can provide compensation or refunds to affected consumers as a gesture of goodwill.
  • Strengthen quality control measures: This may involve enhancing testing procedures, implementing robust internal checks, and conducting regular audits to prevent future violations.
  • Rebuild transparency and trust: This can be achieved through regular updates on corrective actions taken, sharing information about the improved manufacturing processes, and engaging with consumers to address their concerns.
(c) The ethical dilemma involved in this case lies in the food company's decision to sell non-compliant and rejected export products in the domestic market, thereby compromising the health and safety of consumers. The company prioritized profit over ethical responsibilities, deceiving consumers and damaging their trust. The violation of food standards not only resulted in reputational damage but also put consumers at risk of health hazards.
To resolve the ethical dilemma, the food company should take responsibility for its actions, rectify the violations, and work towards rebuilding trust with consumers and regulatory authorities. Implementing stricter quality control measures and ensuring transparency in its operations are crucial steps to regain its lost reputation and uphold ethical standards.

12. Pawan is working as an officer in the State Government for the last ten years. As a part of the routine transfer, he was posted to another department. He joined a new office along with five other colleagues. The head of the office was a senior officer conversant with the functioning of the office. As a part of general inquiry, Pawan gathered that his senior officer carries the reputation of being a difficult and insensitive person having his own disturbed family life. Initially, all seem to go well. However, after some time Pawan felt that the senior officer was belittling him and at times unreasonable. Whatever suggestions given or views expressed by Pawan in the meetings were summarily rejected and the senior officer would express displeasure in the presence of others. It became a pattern of the boss’s style of functioning to show him in bad light highlighting his shortcomings and humiliating him publicly. It became apparent that though there are no serious work-related problems/shortcomings, the senior officer was always on one pretext or the other and would scold and shout at him. The continuous harassment and public criticism of Pawan resulted in the loss of confidence, self-esteem and equanimity. Pawan realized that his relations with his senior officer are becoming more toxic and due to this, he perpetually tensed, anxious and stressed. His mind was occupied with negativity and caused him mental torture, anguish and agony. Eventually, it badly affected his personal and family life. He was no longer joyous, happy and contented even at home. Rather without any reason, he would lose his temper with his wife and other family members. The family environment was no longer pleasant and congenial. His wife who was always supportive of him also became a victim of his negativity and hostile behaviour. Due to harassment and humiliation suffering by him in the office, comfort and happiness virtually vanished from his life. Thus, it damaged his physical and mental health.

a) What are the options available with Pawan to cope up with the situation?

b) What approach Pawan should adopt for bringing, peace, tranquillity and a congenial environment in the office and home?

c) As an outsider, what are your suggestions for both boss and subordinate to overcome this situation and for improving the work performance, mental and emotional hygiene?

d) In the above scenario, what type of training would you suggest for officers at various levels in the government offices? (250 words)

Work culture is a collection of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours that make up the regular atmosphere in a work environment. Work culture determines how well a person fits into their environment at a new job and their ability to build professional relationships with colleagues.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Options available for Pawan to cope with the situation
  • Communicate: Pawan can initiate a conversation expressing his concerns with his senior officer, assert his desire for a respectful and professional working relationship, and seek clarity on the expectations and areas of improvement.
  • Seek support: Pawan can reach out to his colleagues or other senior officials in the department for guidance and support. This can help him gain perspective on the situation.
  • Document incidents: Pawan should maintain a record of incidents where he has been subjected to harassment or humiliation to serve as evidence in case he needs to escalate the issue to higher authorities or file a complaint.
  • Report the issue: Pawan may consider reporting the issue to the appropriate authority within the organization.
  • Seek counselling or therapy: Pawan can seek professional help to manage the stress and emotional impact of the situation.
(b) Approach for bringing peace, tranquillity, and a congenial environment:
  • Emotional resilience: Pawan should focus on building emotional resilience to cope with the stress and negativity at work. Engaging in activities that promote well-being, such as exercise, meditation, or counselling, can help him regain a sense of balance and inner peace.
  • Professionalism and self-confidence: Pawan should continue to perform his duties diligently and maintain professionalism in his interactions with colleagues and superiors.
  • Positive communication: Pawan should strive to maintain open and positive communication with his colleagues and superiors, fostering a cooperative and respectful work environment.
(c) Suggestions for both the boss and subordinate:
  • Boss: Training or counselling on effective leadership, communication, and emotional intelligence. - develop better management skills, empathy, and the ability to handle conflicts.
  • Subordinate: Counselling or mentoring sessions can help Pawwan develop strategies for managing difficult relationships and improving his emotional well-being.
To improve work performance, mental and emotional hygiene:
  • Training programs: Both bosses and subordinates can benefit from training programs on interpersonal skills, conflict resolution, emotional intelligence, and stress management.
  • Policy implementation: Organizations should ensure that policies on workplace harassment, dignity at work, and grievance redressal mechanisms are in place and effectively enforced.
(d) Training suggestions for officers at various levels:
  • Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: inculcate skills, including effective communication, conflict resolution, and emotional intelligence essential for maintaining healthy work environment.
  • Diversity and Inclusion: Officers should be educated on the value of creating inclusive workspaces that respect and embrace differences, fostering a sense of belonging and equal opportunity.
  • Stress Management and Resilience: techniques to build resilience, and maintaining mental well-being can equip officers with the tools to d cope with work-related stress.
  • Ethical Conduct and Professionalism: Officers should be educated on the importance of upholding ethical standards, treating colleagues with respect, and promoting a positive work culture.
By providing comprehensive training programs that address these areas, government offices can promote a healthier work environment, enhance employee well-being, and improve overall performance and productivity.



1. (a) Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP) viz. human capital, soft power (culture and policies), and social harmony. (150 words)
Ethics and values play a crucial role in enhancing the three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP) as it helps us to distinguish right from wrong, good from the bad.
Role of Ethics & Values in Enhancing Human Capital:
  • Ethics and values contribute to the development of a skilled and knowledgeable workforce, which is a critical component of human capital.
  • They help in building a culture of professionalism, integrity, and accountability, which enhances the productivity and efficiency of the workforce.
    E.g.: For instance, a government implementing strict regulations to prevent corruption in public institutions ensures a skilled and trustworthy workforce.
Role of Ethics & Values in Enhancing Social Harmony:
  • Social Cohesion: Ethical values like tolerance and compassion are essential for fostering social harmony and promoting social bonds.
  • Inclusivity and diversity: Embracing ethical values of inclusivity and respect for diversity strengthens social harmony.
    E.g.: Canada's multicultural policies and initiatives that promote inclusivity have contributed to social harmony and national cohesion.
Role of Ethics & Values in Enhancing Soft Power:
  • Culture and Policies: Ethical policies that prioritize the welfare of the people, protect the environment, and promote sustainable development can enhance a country's soft power and global influence.
    E.g.: India’s vasudaiva kudumbakam, athithi devo bhava are an essential aspect of its soft power, and they shape its national identity and reputation.
Thus, ethics and values contribute to building a strong, inclusive, and sustainable society and promoting national development and progress.
1. (b) “Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all-round development of an individual and social transformation”. Examine the New Education Policy, 2020 (NEP, 2020) in light of the above statement. (150 words)
Education is a tool that enables an individual, provides him/her the necessary liberty and opportunities to realise one’s potential. The New Education Policy, 2020 (NEP, 2020) aims to transform the education system in India by providing equitable access to quality education for all, fostering creativity and critical thinking.
Role of New Education policy in Individual and Social Transformation:
  • Inclusiveness – NEP provides opportunities for every individual to educate themselves by integrating local languages and vocational skills.
  • Multi-disciplinary – opportunity to choose subject of choice – essential for all-round development of students. Increases attitude of purposeful education and employability.
  • Self-regulatory – individual educational institutions can self-regulate their internal affairs – promotes innovations
  • New pedagogy – instead of injunctions of rote learning, a value based, practical education is envisaged.
  • Critical thinking – promotes active learning among students with respect for diversity and responsible citizenship
  • Continuous education – liberates students from burden of a single exam which determines their future. Helps students to strive throughout the year and enjoy the learning
In conclusion, the NEP, 2020 helps to make Indian the education system meet the needs of the 21st century and promote holistic development, social cohesion, and responsible citizenship.
2. (a) ‘Hatred is destructive of a person’s wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation’s spirit.’ Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words)
Hatred is a negative emotion that can have a very destructive impact on an individual's wisdom and conscience, as well as on the spirit of a nation. When a person is consumed by hatred, they lose their ability to think clearly and rationally. They become blinded by their emotions and are unable to make sound judgments.
Hatred among persons hampers the growth and progress of the nation in the following ways:
  • Destruction of Social harmony: Due to the communal intimidation and hatred being spread, the very fabric of a society is being diminished in the larger sense, rendering weak and divided social strength.
    E.g.: Fabric of Indian society, which when tainted with communal intolerance get divided and internally threatened.
  • Economy: Disturbances caused due to communal intolerance largely impact the local economy due to the disruptive activities like strikes, riots, destruction of public property etc.
    E.g.: Many global indices consider social parameters and societal tolerance to rank countries which in turn are considered for economic reports.
  • Impaired social cohesion: When a nation is poisoned by hatred, the spirit of unity and cooperation suffers and hampers the ability to work together towards development.
  • Undermining national values: Hatred contradicts the principles of harmony, respect, and inclusivity that are often fundamental to a nation's spirit.
    E.g.: In Sri Lanka, communal clashes and violence often divide the nation and the common masses bringing in a total instability.
  • Disunity and Polarization: Hatred can also lead to harmful actions, such as discrimination, violence, and destruction, which can have a negative impact on individuals and society.
    E.g.: Hitler created hatred towards Jews.
In conclusion, hatred is indeed destructive of a person's wisdom and conscience, and can poison the spirit of a nation. Therefore, it is important to promote positive values such as love, compassion, and understanding, and to reject hatred and discrimination in all forms.
2. (b) What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI)? Can they be learned? Discuss. (150 words)
Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. People with a high degree of emotional intelligence know what they're feeling, what their emotions mean, and how these emotions can affect other people
The main components of emotional intelligence (EI) are:
  • Self-awareness: the ability to recognize and understand your own emotions.
  • Self-regulation: the ability to manage and control your emotions in different situations.
  • Motivation: the ability to motivate yourself and persist in the face of setbacks.
  • Empathy: the ability to understand and recognize other people's emotions.
  • Social skills: the ability to communicate effectively and build relationships with others.
How EI can be learned:
  • Practice self-reflection and self-awareness exercises like journaling
  • Seek feedback from others and be open to constructive criticism. Practice active listening.
  • Learn and practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or meditation, to help regulate emotions.
  • Explore and engage in activities that promote empathy, such as volunteering or working with diverse groups of people
  • Observe and learn from others who demonstrate strong emotional intelligence.
By developing these skills, individuals can enhance their personal and professional relationships and improve their overall well-being.
3. (a) What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss. (150 words)
The main goal of Buddhism philosophy is to eliminate suffering and unhappiness. As the world increasingly grows interdependent and is beset by conflicts, Buddha's philosophies will only grow more relevant.
The teachings of Buddha that are most relevant today
  • The Four Noble Truths: Acknowledging suffering, understanding its causes, and following the Eightfold Path to overcome it.
    E.g.: The fourth noble path is the way to end dukkha.
  • The Middle Way: Avoiding extremes and finding balance in all aspects of life. It checks against the rampant consumerism and pollution.
  • Compassion and kindness: Treating others with empathy, love, and respect.
    E.g.: Helps to find solution to global conflicts like Russia-Ukraine war, refugee crisis etc.
  • Mindfulness: being fully present in the moment and aware of one’s thoughts and feelings.
    E.g.: Helps to check against spreading rumours and fake news
These teachings are relevant today because they provide guidance on how to live a fulfilling and meaningful life in the face of modern-day challenges. Buddha teaches us to look within since human suffering is due to man’s self-centred cravings, anger, and narrow perceptions and stop blaming others.
He asks us to value time as everything is fleeting and nothing is permanent. This is an important lesson in today’s rat race we are in. By applying these teachings in daily life, individuals can cultivate inner peace and happiness while contributing to the well-being of others and society.

3. (b) “The will to power exists, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.’ Examine this statement in the context of international relations. (150 words)

The concept of the will to power in international relations refers to the idea that states are driven by their desire for power and influence through aggression and hegemony in the global arena. Such behaviour threatens peace.
Role of rationality in taming the will to power:
  • Diplomatic negotiations: Rationality plays a crucial role in diplomatic negotiations, where parties seek to resolve disputes through dialogue and compromise.
    E.g.: Iran Nuclear Deal (JCPOA) was reached through rational negotiations to address concerns about Iran's nuclear program.
  • Strategic alliances: Nations form strategic alliances based on rational calculations of shared interests, aiming to collectively balance power and promote stability.
    E.g.: NATO is an example of a strategic alliance that seeks to deter aggression and maintain security through collective defence.
Role of Moral duty in taming the will to power:
  • Human rights advocacy: Nations can exercise their power by advocating for human rights and promoting international standards of justice.
    E.g.: For instance, the United Nations Human Rights Council works to address human rights violations and hold nations accountable for their actions.
  • Humanitarian interventions: When guided by moral duty, nations may use their power to intervene in crises and protect vulnerable populations.
    E.g.: India’s support during Nepal Earthquake
  • Climate change agreements: This demonstrates the recognition that rational and moral duty-based actions are required to address global challenges.
    E.g.: Agreements like the Paris Agreement, where nations commit to combating climate change collectively.
Globalisation, the world has become more interconnected, so ethical behaviour in international diplomacy is needed to address the common problems like terrorism, climate change and removal of poverty and inequality and establish peace among world countries.

4. (a) Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them. (150 words)

Rules are codes of conduct that are designed for specific situations, similar to customs but have immense importance because there is usually a punishment related with them. Law is defined as a rule that has been legally made to apply to everyone.
Difference between law and rules:
  • Legally binding: Laws are formal rules that are enforced by the government or legal authorities. They are established through legislative processes and carry legal consequences if violated.
  • Formal authority: Laws are created and enforced by institutions with legal authority, such as legislatures, courts, and executive bodies.
  • Universal application: Laws apply to all individuals within a specific jurisdiction and are intended to maintain order, protect rights, and regulate societal behaviour.
  • Guidelines and norms: Rules are informal or formal guidelines that govern specific contexts or environments. They may be set by institutions, organizations, communities, or individuals.
  • Enforced by social pressure: Rules are often enforced through social norms, peer pressure, or self-regulation within a specific group or community. Violations may result in informal consequences rather than legal penalties.
  • Context-dependent: Rules can vary across different contexts, organizations, or social groups, and may be more flexible and subject to negotiation or modification.
Role of ethics in formulating Laws:
  • Human rights legislation: These laws aim to ensure that individuals are protected from discrimination, torture, and other human rights violations.
    E.g.: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, are formulated based on ethical principles of equality, dignity, and respect for individual freedoms.
  • Environmental protection laws: Legislation addressing environmental issues, such as laws regulating pollution, wildlife protection, and sustainable resource management, grounded in ethical considerations of sustainability and the intrinsic value of the environment.
  • Anti-corruption laws: They aim to promote transparency, accountability, and trust in public and private institutions.
    E.g.: Right to Information Act, 2005 based on ethics of granting citizens the right to access information, fostering transparency, accountability, and participatory governance.
Role of ethics in the formulation of Rules:
  • Professional codes of conduct: Many professions have codes of conduct that outline ethical guidelines for practitioners.
    E.g.: Medical associations have established ethical rules for ensuring patient confidentiality, informed consent, and ethical decision-making.
  • Organizational policies and guidelines: Rules align with ethical values of integrity, transparency, helps to prevent conflicts of interest, promote fair competition, responsible use of resources etc
  • Sports regulations: Sports associations and organizations establish rules and regulations that uphold fair play, sportsmanship, and integrity.
However, ethics can also be a source of conflict in the formulation of laws and rules. Different ethical perspectives and values may lead to differing opinions on what should be legal or permissible. Example, religious ethics of a society may prevent laws allowing abortion or same-sex marriages. Overall, ethics are a critical factor in shaping both laws and rules, as they provide the moral foundation for regulating human behaviour in a society.
4. (b) A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes to a positive attitude in a person? (150 words)
Attitude is a predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. A positive attitude refers to a mental and emotional state characterized by optimism, constructive thinking, and a hopeful outlook.
Factors contribute to a positive attitude in a person, including:
  • Self-awareness: having a clear understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. They focus on their strengths and work on improving their weaknesses.
  • Optimism: Positive people can look for the good in every situation and believe that things will turn out well in the end.
    E.g.: Gandhi fought for independence with lot of struggle for decades with optimistic values.
  • Resilience: A positive attitude is often linked to resilience, which is the ability to bounce back from setbacks and difficulties - better equipped to deal with challenges like political pressure.
    E.g.: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, the former President of India, was known for his positive attitude and resilience in the face of adversity
  • Emotional intelligence: They are better equipped to manage their emotions, build strong relationships, and handle stress.
  • Ethical values: Person committed to honesty, integrity, and fairness are likely to have a positive attitude towards their work, colleagues, and the public they serve.
    E.g.: Walt Disney was criticized for not being creative, he continued his work diligently, and later he became genius in cartoon designing.
By cultivating the above factors, civil servants can maintain a positive attitude to effectively serve the public and maintain a positive work environment.
5. (a) What are the main factors responsible for gender inequality in India? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard. (150 words)
Gender inequality is the social process by which men and women are not treated as equals. The treatment may arise from distinctions regarding biology, psychology, or cultural norms. Some of these distinctions are empirically-grounded while others appear to be socially constructed.
Factors responsible for gender inequality in India:
  • Preference for Sons: From time immemorial, a girl child has been considered as an unwanted entity and a burden whom the parents would not mind doing away with.
    E.g.: This result in female feticide and infanticide.
  • Role of Cultural Institutions: Cultural institutions in India, of play a central role in perpetuating gender inequality. E.g.: Patrilineality (inheritance through male descendants) ,Patrilocality (married couples living with or near the husband’s parents),
  • Assumed Role of Women: It is believed in the Indian Society the primary responsibility of taking care of the family and bringing up the child is still on the women.
    E.g.: Many women due to family pressures have to retreat from the workforce.
  • Pink-Collarisation of Jobs: The women are mostly deemed fit for “pink-collar jobs'' only, and have been denied opportunities in other fields.
    E.g.: Jobs like teachers, nurses, receptionists, babysitter, lecturers, etc. are stereotyped for women.
  • Discrimination at Work: Companies are interested in hiring more young women because it has been generally seen that the work and the family environment, marriage, and maternity generally forces a married woman to resign.
    E.g.: Women receive a lower amount of wage compared to men for the same work.
Contribution of Savitribai Phule to bridge the gender gap
  • Education and Empowerment: She advocated for women's empowerment through education, aiming to break the cycle of gender discrimination and provide women with knowledge and skills for self-reliance.
    E.g.: Savitribai Phule established the first school for girls in India in 1848.
  • Women's Rights and Social Reform: Savitribai Phule actively fought against regressive social practices such as child marriage, sati (widow burning), and the caste system.
  • Social Welfare and Healthcare: Savitribai Phule worked towards improving healthcare and sanitation conditions for women, particularly during outbreaks of epidemics.
    E.g.: She established care centres for pregnant women and infants, emphasizing the importance of maternal and child health.
Gender inequality will lead to violation of rights, sexual violence. This problem can be addressed by empowering women, educating them, government taking specific policies in favour of balancing the genders.
5. (b) “The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are often in conflict with traditional values.’ Discuss. (150 words)
The expansion of the internet has undoubtedly brought a significant cultural shift in society. While it has contributed to connectivity and access to information and education, it has also given rise to a new set of cultural values that are often in conflict with traditional values.
The impact of Internet on traditional cultural values:
  • Anonymity and Accountability: The internet has also given rise to a culture of anonymity and reduced accountability, which can result in a lack of civility and ethical behaviour.
    E.g.: Incidence like cyber bullying, harassment, and trolling, which can lead to a breakdown in social harmony.
  • Social media influence: Internet entertainment videos and chats impair audience taste. Literature, culture and arts cease to interest them.
    E.g.: Family and society values are replaced by social media influencers.
  • Self-Alienation: The hatred and exhaustion from the social media and digital platforms have reduce the physical interaction and social cohesion.
    E.g.: Virtual communities
  • Value distortion: Inappropriate content on Internet has caused the decay in moral values of societies.
    E.g.: Ex-Bluewhale challenge.
The widespread use of social media has given rise to a culture of instant gratification, where individuals seek validation and attention through likes, shares, and followers. This external validation can lead to a loss of traditional values like self-reliance, patience, and humility.
Henceforth, there is a need of cyber ethics for the rational use of Internet with the cultural ethos in mind by proper regulation and liberty of expression for full human development.
6. (a) “Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand, do so. If not, fold your hands, bless your brothers, and let them go their own way.” – Swami Vivekanand (150 words)
Swami Vivekananda's quote highlights the importance of compassion and non-judgmental attitude towards others. It advocates for helping others without any expectation of return or recognition.
Criticism does not help others:
  • It makes a person less eager to work and spreads negativity.
    E.g.: If someone is donating or giving money to bagger, other person should not tell that this won’t help them in any way, condemning covid warriors for spreading pandemic.
  • Intolerance: People are quick to condemn others based on their religion, ethnicity, or political beliefs without attempting to understand their perspective or offer any help.
    E.g.: The violence against sexual minorities
Importance of helping others
  • Self-Development: Helping someone or for something gives support, confidence, and hope to a person to work harder.
    E.g.: Philanthropy by people for a NGO.
  • Satisfaction: The statement holds significance in professional duties of, say, civil servants.
    E.g.: A clerk at a pension sanctioning office can either help an old widowed lady get her rightful monthly pension
Thus, in today's world, where social polarization is at an all-time high, Swami Vivekananda's teachings of non-judgmental attitude and compassion are more relevant than ever.
6. (b) “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.” – Mahatma Gandhi (150 words)
Mahatma Gandhi's quote encapsulates the profound idea that self-discovery and personal growth can be achieved through acts of service and compassion towards others.
Importance of serving others
  • Helps individuals to transcend their own ego and selfish desires.
    E.g.: Sharing food to hungry neighbour
  • Experience a sense of fulfilment and purpose in life.
    E.g.: Volunteering during floods to save lives.
  • Social cooperation and harmony and understanding of needs of others.
    E.g.: Serving other community members during their festivals.
  • Brings a sense of empathy and understanding towards others
  • Gain a deeper understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses.
Gandhi believed that service to others should not be driven by the desire for personal gain or recognition, but rather by a genuine desire to alleviate the suffering of others and contribute to the common good.
Example, Dr. Prakash Amte a doctor and social worker who has dedicated his life to serving the tribal communities in the state of Maharashtra Gandhi's philosophy of service has inspired countless individuals and social movements around the world, and remains a powerful reminder of the transformative power of selflessness and compassion.
6. (c) “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates (150 words)
Morality refers to individual standards of right and wrong in human behaviour. Socrates, the ancient Greek philosopher, was a staunch believer in objective morality, and he emphasized that morality should be grounded in reason and logic, rather than emotional whims.
Emotion based morality: Issues
  • Shape value: Morality driven by emotions are bound to errors. It unreliable and can lead to a distorted perception of what is right or wrong.
    E.g.: Honour killings based on concept of emotional values of caste and family pride against objective vales of human dignity and choice
  • Distorts harmony: Morality driven by emotions like anger, spite etc can lead to revenge seeking attitude which blurs our true conscience.
    E.g.: Issues of cow-vigilantism based on different religious emotions
  • Corruption: It can go against the state or constitutional morality such as greed, power, and entitlement, rather than objective morality and legality.
    E.g.: Corruption is the result of greed.
Basis of morality:
  • Emotions with the evolutionary wisdom have played a prominent role in the great struggles of human kind.
    E.g.: For instance, French revolution, which gave the world values of justice equality and fraternity.
  • Socrates believed that true morality should be based on rationality and logical reasoning and that morality is an essential aspect of human flourishing and the good life.
    E.g.: Principles like justice and fairness,
Socrates' statement emphasizes the importance of having an objective moral system in society, which can serve as a foundation for ethical behaviour and decision-making. The above examples highlight the need for a sound and objective moral system in society to address issues stemming from subjective emotional values.


7. Rajesh Kumar is a senior public servant, with a reputation of honesty and forthrightness, currently posted in the Finance Ministry as Head of the Budget Division. His department is presently busy in organising the budgetary support to the states, four of which are due to go to the polls within the financial year. This year’s annual budget had allotted 8300 crores for the National Housing Scheme (NHS), a centrally sponsored social housing scheme for the weaker sections of society. 775 crores have been drawn for NHS till June. The Ministry of Commerce had long been pursuing a case for setting up a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in a southern state to boost exports. After two years of detailed discussions between the centre and state, the Union Cabinet approved the project in August. Process was initiated to acquire the necessary land. Eighteen months ago, a leading Public Sector Unit (PSU) had projected the need for setting up a large natural gas processing plant in a northern state for the regional gas grid. The required land is already in possession of the PSU. The gas grid is an essential component of the national energy security strategy. After three rounds of global bidding the project was allotted to an MNC, M/s XYZ Hydrocarbons. The first tranche of payment to the MNC is scheduled to be made in December.
Finance Ministry was asked for a timely allocation of an additional 6000 crores for these two developmental projects. It was decided to recommend re-appropriation of this entire amount from the NHS allocation. The file was forwarded to Budget Department for their comments and further processing. On studying the case file, Rajesh Kumar realized that this re-appropriation may cause inordinate delay in the execution of NHS, a project much publicized in the rallies of senior politicians. Correspondingly, non-availability of finances would cause financial loss in the SEZ and national embarrassment due to delayed payment in an international project.
Rajesh Kumar discussed the matter with his seniors. He was con politically sensitive situation needs to be processed immediately. Rajesh Kumar realized that diversion of funds from NHS could raisé difficult questions for the government in the Parliament.
Discuss the following with reference to this case :
(a) Ethical issues involved in re-appropriation of funds from a welfare project to the developmental projects.
(b) Given the need for proper utilization of public funds, discuss the options available to Rajesh Kumar. Is resigning a worthy option ? (250 words)
Rajesh Kumar, a senior public servant, faces the dilemma of re-appropriating funds from a welfare project to developmental projects. It can lead to financial implications, political sensitivity, and potential backlash from stakeholders.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Ethical issues involved in re-appropriation of funds from a welfare project to the developmental projects
  • Welfare over development: The NHS is a centrally sponsored social housing scheme aimed at providing housing to the weaker sections of society, whereas the SEZ and the gas processing plant are developmental projects.
  • Progress of scheme: The NHS has already drawn 775 crores out of the allotted ₹8300 crores, which means that the re-appropriation of ₹6000 crores would adversely affect the progress of the scheme.
  • Government commitment and priorities: It would also raise questions on the government's commitment to the welfare of weaker sections of society.
  • Political influence: The decision to re-appropriate funds may be influenced by political considerations, which can undermine the integrity of the allocation process
  • Transparency: In public finance management any diversion of funds should be done transparently and with clear justifications to maintain public trust and confidence.
(b) Rajesh Kumar has a responsibility to ensure that public funds are used judiciously, and he is faced with a difficult situation.
  • Raise concerns internally: his superiors and colleagues within the Finance Ministry, highlighting the potential negative consequences of re-appropriation. This can contribute to a more informed decision-making process.
  • Propose alternative solutions: suggest alternative funding sources or explore the possibility of seeking additional funds from other government departments or external sources.
  • Advocate for transparency and accountability: He can push for a thorough evaluation of the impact and implications of re-appropriation, ensuring that decisions are made in the best interest of the public.
  • Whistle blowing: Whistle blowing to appropriate authorities or agencies responsible for overseeing public finance management. This can help expose any unethical practices and ensure accountability
Resigning may not be a worthy option in this case, as it would not solve the problem at hand. Rather than quitting, Rajesh Kumar can use his position to raise ethical concerns and push for a more transparent and equitable allocation of resources. He can also work with his seniors to find a middle ground that satisfies the needs of all projects involved, without causing harm to any one of them.
Ultimately, Rajesh Kumar must balance the need for proper utilization of public funds with the political and social realities of the situation, and make a decision that is ethical and fair.

8. The Chairman of Bharat Missiles Ltd (BML) was watching a program on TV wherein the Prime Minister was addressing the nation on the necessity of developing a self-reliant India. He subconsciously nodded in agreement and smiled to himself as he mentally reviewed BML’s journey in the past two decades. BML had admirably progressed from producing first generation anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) to designing and producing state of the art ATGM weapon systems that would be the envy of any army. He sighed in reconciliation with his assumptions that the government would probably not alter the status quo of a ban on export of military weaponry. To his surprise, the very next day he got a telephone call from the Director General, Ministry of Defence, asking him to discuss the modalities of increasing BML production of ATGMs as there is a possibility of exporting the same to a friendly foreign country. The Director General wanted the Chairman to discuss the details with his staff at Delhi next week.
Two days later, at a press conference, the Defence Minister stated that he aims to double the current weapons export levels within five years. This would give an impetus to financing the development and manufacture of indigenous weapons in the country. He also stated that all indigenous arms manufacturing nations have a very good record of international arms trade.

As Chairman of BML, what are your views on the following points ?
(a) As an arms exporter of a responsible nation like India, what are the ethical issues involved in arms trade ?

(b) List five ethical factors that would influence the decision to sell arms to foreign governments. (250 words)

As the Chairman of Bharat Missiles Ltd (BML), the possibility of exporting anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) to a foreign country raises several ethical issues that must be carefully considered.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

(a) Ethical issues involved in arms trade
  • Arms trade has been criticized for promoting conflict, human rights abuses, and destabilization of regions.
  • The sale of weapons to countries with a history of human rights violations or aggressive foreign policies could be seen as condoning their behaviour.
  • Additionally, there is a risk that weapons could be diverted to non-state actors or end up in the wrong hands.
  • India being the land of Mahatma must be reflecting principles of non-violence or Ahimsa.
(b) Ethical factors that would influence the decision to sell arms to foreign governments
  • Human rights: The arms exporter must ensure that the buyer has a good human rights record and will not use the weapons to suppress or harm civilians.
  • Regional stability: The sale of weapons must not upset the regional balance of power or fuel conflict in the region.
  • National security: The exporter must ensure that the sale of weapons will not harm the national security interests of their own country or allies.
  • Transparency: The arms trade should be conducted in a transparent and accountable manner, with clear contracts and oversight mechanisms.
  • Responsible use: the importing country must have a track record of responsible international conduct, like abiding international rules and agreements.
In the case of BML, the decision to export ATGMs must be made after a thorough assessment of these ethical factors. Ultimately, as an arms exporter, BML must balance the ethical concerns of arms trade with the potential benefits of financing the development and manufacture of indigenous weapons in India. It is essential to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the potential risks and benefits before deciding on arms exports.
9. Rampura, a remote district inhabited by a tribal population, is marked by extreme backwardness and abject poverty. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local population, though it is primarily subsistence due to the very small land holdings. There is insignificant industrial or mining activity. Even the targeted welfare programs have inadequately benefited the tribal population. In this restrictive scenario, the youth has begun to migrate to other states to supplement the family income. Plight of minor girls is that their parents are persuaded by labour contractors to send them to work in the Bt Cotton farms of a nearby state. The soft fingers of the minor girls are well suited for plucking the cotton. The inadequate living and working conditions in these farms have caused serious health issues for the minor girls. NGOs in the districts of domicile and the cotton farms appear to be compromised and have not effectively espoused the twin issues of child labour and development of the area. You are appointed as the District Collector of Rampura. Identify the ethical issues involved. Which specific steps will you initiate to ameliorate the conditions of minor girls of your district and to improve the over-all economic scenario in the district? (250 words)  
Rampura, a backward district with tribal population, faces poverty and lack of opportunities. Minor girls are forced into hazardous child labor in nearby Bt Cotton farms, while inadequate interventions from NGOs worsen the situation.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

As the District Collector of Rampura, the ethical issues involved in the situation are manifold.
  • The first and foremost issue is that of child labour, which is a violation of the fundamental right to education and protection of children under the Constitution of India.
  • Another ethical issue is the exploitation of the poverty-stricken tribal population, particularly minor girls, by labour contractors for the profit-making activities of others.
  • The compromised role of NGOs is also a serious ethical issue, as it hinders the welfare of the local population and contributes to the perpetuation of their socio-economic backwardness.
To ameliorate the conditions of minor girls in the district and improve the overall economic scenario, the following specific steps can be initiated:
  • Enforcement of child labor laws: Strict enforcement of laws against child labor is necessary to protect the rights of children and ensure their education and well-being. This can be achieved through regular inspections of Bt Cotton farms and other workplaces, as well as collaboration with law enforcement agencies.
  • Skill development programs: The tribal population of Rampura lacks access to skill development opportunities, which limits their economic prospects. Skill development programs can be initiated to provide training in agriculture, handicrafts, and other trades that are relevant to the local economy.
  • Development of infrastructure: Development of infrastructure, particularly roads and communication networks, is crucial for the economic development of the district. Improved connectivity will facilitate access to markets and create new employment opportunities.
  • Encouragement of entrepreneurship: Encouraging entrepreneurship among the local population can help create sustainable livelihoods and stimulate economic growth. This can be achieved through the provision of financial and technical support to small businesses and startups.
  • Strengthening of civil society: The role of civil society organizations is crucial for the welfare of marginalized communities. The compromised role of NGOs in Rampura underscores the need to strengthen civil society organizations and ensure their effective participation in development initiatives.
In conclusion, as the District Collector of Rampura, it is important to recognize the ethical issues involved in the situation and take proactive steps to address them. The welfare of minor girls, enforcement of child labor laws, skill development programs, infrastructure development, encouragement of entrepreneurship, and strengthening of civil society are all important steps towards achieving sustainable development and social justice in the district.
10. You are a municipal commissioner of a large city, having the reputation of a very honest and upright officer. A huge multipurpose mall is under construction in your city in which a large number of daily wage earners are employed. One night, during monsoons, a big chunk of the roof collapsed causing instant death of four labourers cluding two minors. Many more were seriously injured requiring immediate medical attention. The mishap resulted in a big hue and cry, forcing the government to institute an enquiry. Your preliminary enquiry has revealed a series of anomalies. The material used for the construction was of poor quality. Despite the approved building plans permitting only one basement, an additional basement has been constructed. This was overlooked during the periodic inspections by the building inspecto municipal corporation. In your enquiry, you noticed that the construction of the mall was given the green signal despite encroaching on areas earmarked for a green belt and a slip road in the Zonal Master Plan of the city. The permission to construct the mall was accorded by the previous Municipal Commissioner who is not only your senior and well known to you professionally, but also a good friend. Prima facie, the case appears to be of a widespread nexus between officials of the Municipal Corporation and the builders. Your colleagues are putting pressure on you to go slow in the enquiry. The builder, who is rich and influential, happens to be a close relative of a powerful minister in the state cabinet. The builder is persuading you to hush up the matter, promising you a fortune to do so. He also hinted that if this matter is not resolved at the earliest in his favour there is somebody in his office who is waiting to file a case against you under the POSH Act.
Discuss the ethical issues involved in the case. What are the options available to you in this situation ? Explain your selected course of action. (250 words)
The case study involves the collapse of a mall construction resulting in the death of laborers, corruption, negligence, and influence peddling. The ethical issues include corruption, compromised integrity, exploitation of labour, and disregard for public safety
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

The case described raises several ethical issues.
  • Firstly, the safety and well-being of the labourers were compromised due to the use of poor quality construction material and non-adherence to the approved building plans.
  • Secondly, the encroachment on the green belt and slip road violates the Zonal Master Plan, which was created to ensure sustainable and planned development of the city.
  • Thirdly, there appears to be a nexus between officials of the Municipal Corporation and the builders, which has led to the compromise of safety and flouting of rules.
  • Finally, the pressure being put on the Municipal Commissioner to go slow in the enquiry and the attempt to bribe and threaten the Commissioner is a blatant violation of ethical conduct.
As the Municipal Commissioner, the following options are available in this situation:
  • Ignore the issue and allow the case to be hushed up in exchange for a bribe or under pressure from colleagues and influential individuals. This option is unethical and would result in the compromise of safety and rule of law.
  • Follow due process and initiate action against the builder and officials involved in the nexus. This option is ethical but could lead to professional and personal repercussions, including threats and legal action.
  • Resign from the post to avoid getting caught up in the situation. This option may seem easier, but it does not address the ethical issues involved and may result in further harm to the labourers and the city.
The best course of action is to follow due process and initiate action against the builder and officials involved in the nexus. The safety and well-being of citizens must be given top priority, and any compromise in this regard cannot be tolerated. The Municipal Commissioner must ensure that a fair and impartial enquiry is conducted, and action is taken as per the law. The Municipal Commissioner should also take steps to prevent such incidents from happening in the future by strengthening the inspection process and ensuring adherence to rules and regulations. It is important to resist pressure and stand firm on ethical principles, even in the face of personal and professional challenges.
11. Parmal is a small but underdeveloped district. It has rocky terrain that is not suitable for agriculture, though some subsistence agriculture is being done on small plots of land. The area receives adequate rainfall and has an irrigation canal flowing through it. Amria, its administrative centre, is a medium sized town. It houses a large district hospital, an Industrial Training Institute and some privately owned skill training centres. It has all the facilities of a district headquarters. A trunk railway line passes approximately 50 kilometres from Amria. Its poor connectivity is a major reason for the absence of any major industry therein. The state government offers a 10 years tax holiday as an incentive to new industry. In 2010 Anil, an industrialist, decided to take benefits to set up Amria Plastic Works (APW) in Noora village, about 20 km from Amria. While the factory was being built, Anil hired the required key labour and got them trained at the skill training centres at Amria. This act of his made the key personnel very loyal to APW. APW started production in 2011 with the labour drawn fully from Noora village. The villagers were very happy to get employment near their homes and were motivated by the key personnel to meet the production targets with high quality. APW started making large profits, a sizeable portion of which was used to improve the quality of life in Noora. By 2016, Noora could boast of a greener village and a renovated village temple. Anil liaised with the local MLA to increase the frequency of the bus services to Amria. The government also opened a primary health care centre and primary school at Noora in buildings constructed by APW, APW used its CSR funds to set up women’s self-help groups, subsidize primary education to the village children and procure an ambulance for use by its employees and the needy. In 2019, there was a minor fire in APW. It was quickly extinguished as fire safety protocols were in place in the factory. Investigations revealed that the factory had been using electricity in excess of its authorized capacity. This was soon rectified The next year, due to a nationwide lockdown, the requirement of production fell for four months. Anil decided that all employees would be paid regularly. He employed them to plant trees and improve the village habitat. APW had developed a reputation of high quality production and a motivated workforce.
Critically analyse the story of APW and state the ethical issues involved. Do you consider APW as a role model for development of backward areas ? Give reasons. (250 words)
In this case study, the initiative to set up industry in such remote areas and ensure livelihood of villagers, that to with least government support, is a commendable and appreciable job. As far as excess use than granted capacity of electricity is concerned an enquiry can be initiated and prima facie a warning can be issued to administrative staff of the industry.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

The story of Amria Plastic Works (APW) highlights various ethical issues involved in the development of backward areas.
  • First, there is a need for a responsible corporate citizen who should ensure adherence to environmental and labour laws while starting a new industry.
  • Second, it is essential to ensure that the local community benefits from the industry's presence in the area.
  • Third, transparency and ethical practices should be ensured during the production process.
  • Fourth, CSR activities should be focused on uplifting the local community and addressing their basic needs.
APW seems to have adhered to most of these ethical principles. Anil ensured that the key labour was trained and loyal to APW, making the production process smooth. He also focused on improving the quality of life in Noora village by using profits to set up health care centres, self-help groups, and subsidizing primary education. Furthermore, Anil showed his social responsibility by employing the workers during the lockdown and making them plant trees to improve the village's habitat.
APW can be considered a role model for development in backward areas because
  • it has addressed many of the issues related to corporate social responsibility, employment generation, and environmental sustainability.
  • The company's responsible practices and transparency in their operations have built trust with the local community, making it a win-win situation for both.
  • Moreover, APW's CSR activities were focused on addressing the basic needs of the local community, which made a significant difference in their lives.
In conclusion, APW's story highlights the importance of ethical practices and responsible corporate citizenship while starting an industry in a backward area. APW's CSR activities show that industries can make a considerable difference in the lives of the local community, especially if they focus on addressing their basic needs. Therefore, APW can be considered a role model for development in backward areas and more industries should follow its example.
12. Migrant workers have always remained at the socio-economic margins of our society, silently serving as the instrumental labour force of urban economics. The pandemic has brought them into national focus. On announcement of a countrywide lockdown, a very large number of migrant workers decided to move back from their places of employment to their native villages. The non-availability of transport created its own problems. Added to this was the fear of starvation and inconvenience to their families. This caused, the migrant workers to demand wages and transport facilities for returning to their villages. Their mental agony was accentuated by multiple factors such as a sudden loss of livelihood, possibility of lack of food and inability to assist in harvesting their rabi crop due to not being able to reach home in time. Reports of inadequate response of some districts in providing the essential boarding and lodging arrangements along the way multiplied their fears. You have learnt many lessons from this situation when you were tasked to oversee the functioning of the District Disaster Relief Force in your district.
In your opinion what ethical issues arose in the current migrant crisis ?
What do you understand by an ethical care giving state ?
What assistance can the civil society render to mitigate the sufferings of migrants in similar situations? (250 words)
The case study highlights the challenges faced by migrant workers during the pandemic-induced lockdown. The migrant crisis that unfolded during the pandemic has raised several ethical issues that need to be addressed.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Ethical issues in the migrant crisis:
  • Right to Livelihood: The sudden loss of livelihood for migrant workers raised ethical concerns regarding their right to earn a living and support their families.
  • Right to Dignity: Migrant workers faced challenges related to basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare, which raised ethical issues concerning their right to live with dignity.
  • Equity and Justice: The unequal distribution of resources and assistance during the crisis raised ethical questions about fairness and justice for migrant workers who were already marginalized.
  • Humanitarian Responsibility: The lack of timely and adequate response from some districts in providing essential support to migrants highlighted ethical concerns about the duty to protect and assist vulnerable populations in times of crisis.
  • Exploitation and Vulnerability: The plight of migrant workers revealed ethical issues related to their vulnerability to exploitation, unsafe working conditions, and lack of social security
An ethical care-giving state is a state that takes care of its citizens, especially the vulnerable sections of society, during times of crisis. It is a state that recognizes the dignity and worth of every human being and ensures that their basic needs are met. It is a state that is committed to social justice, human rights, and the well-being of all its citizens.
Civil society can play a significant role in mitigating the sufferings of migrants in similar situations.
  • Creating temporary shelters with daily provisions or cash doles
  • Arranging free medical camps with support from doctors
  • Liaising with authorities in homeward journeys of migrants
  • Helping them communicate with families
  • Providing psychological support
  • Assisting migrants with legal support, ensuring their rights are protected
In conclusion, the migrant crisis during the pandemic has highlighted the need for a more compassionate and ethical approach towards the care of vulnerable sections of society. An ethical care-giving state and active involvement of civil society organizations can help mitigate the sufferings of migrant workers and ensure that their rights are protected.



1. (a) What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three with suitable examples. (150 words)
The basic principles of public life are ethical values and standards that guide the behaviour of public officials and public servants. These principles are fundamental for a functional democracy, as they ensure that public officials act in the public interest and not in their own self-interest.
Basic principles of public life:
  • Selflessness: Public officials should act in the best interests of the public and not seek personal gain.
    E.g.: A government minister refrains from accepting gifts or favours that may influence their decision-making process.
  • Integrity: Public officials should demonstrate honesty, moral courage, and high ethical standards.
    E.g.: A judge maintains impartiality and avoids conflicts of interest when presiding over a case.
  • Objectivity: Public officials should make decisions based on evidence, facts, and impartial analysis.
    E.g.: A planning officer evaluates development proposals based on zoning regulations and community needs rather than personal preferences.
  • Accountability: Public officials should be accountable for their actions and decisions, and they should be willing to justify and explain their choices.
    E.g.: A government official appears before a parliamentary committee to answer questions regarding a policy decision.
  • Openness: Public officials should be transparent and provide information to the public unless there are legitimate reasons for confidentiality.
    E.g.: A government department publishes its budget and expenditure details for public scrutiny.
  • Honesty: Public officials should be truthful and not knowingly provide false or misleading information.
    E.g.: A police officer provides accurate and factual testimony in court during a criminal trial.
  • Leadership: Public officials should exhibit leadership qualities and inspire public trust and confidence.
    E.g.: An elected representative engages with constituents, listens to their concerns, and takes action to address them.
Three basic principles of public life:
  • Integrity: Public servants are expected to uphold honesty, fairness, and ethical conduct.
    E.g.: Police officer acting impartially in enforcing the law demonstrates the principle of integrity.
  • Accountability: Public servants are accountable for their actions and decisions.
    E.g: Government official providing transparent reports on the use of public funds or a public representative answering to constituents for their policy decisions.
  • Impartiality: Public servants are required to act without bias, favouritism, or discrimination.
    E.g.: Judge rendering a verdict based solely on the evidence presented, irrespective of personal beliefs, or a civil servant treating all citizens equally when providing public services.
  • Thus, when public officials adhere to these principles, they promote trust, confidence, and accountability in government institutions, and they contribute to the effective and efficient delivery of public service. (194 words)
1.(b) What do you understand by the term ‘public servant’? Reflect on the expected role of public servant. (150 words)
The term 'public servant' refers to individuals who hold positions within the government or public sector organizations and are tasked with serving the interests and welfare of the public. Public servants have a crucial role in the effective functioning of society.
Expected role of public servant:
  • Service to the Public: They provide essential services, make policies, and implement programs that promote the common good.
    E.g.: District collector in Madhya Pradesh P Narahari won 40 awards making villages disabled friendly.
  • Upholding the Rule of Law: Public servants are expected to ensure that laws and regulations are adhered to and justice is delivered impartially.
    E.g.: Kiran Bedi, the first female Indian Police Service (IPS) officer, was known for her strict adherence to the rule of law
  • Ethical Conduct: They must act with integrity, transparency, and accountability in their decision-making, avoiding conflicts of interest and making decisions in the best interest of the public.
    E.g.: T.N. Seshan, a former Chief Election Commissioner of India, initiated electoral reforms, cracked down on electoral malpractices, and ensured free and fair elections
By fulfilling their expected roles, public servants can help build a strong and thriving society, keeping public interest at the centre.
2. (a) Effective utilization of public finds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under- utilization and mis- utilization of public funds and their implications. (150 words)
The effective utilization of public funds is indeed crucial for achieving development goals especially for a country like India with limited funds and large poor population. Public funds allocated for everything ranging from food grain to cancer research inexplicably ends up being under-utilised or misappropriated.
Effective utilisation of public funds for achieving development goals:
  • Resource Optimization: Effective utilization of public funds ensures that resources are allocated in a manner that maximizes their impact.
    E.g.: A government allocates funds to upgrade and expand the public transportation system in a growing city.
  • Social Welfare: Effective utilization ensures equitable access to essential services, thereby uplifting the disadvantaged and promoting social inclusivity.
    E.g.: Public funds are directed towards a poverty alleviation program empower disadvantaged to break the cycle of poverty.
  • Strengthening Governance and Public Institutions: Public funds are utilized to enhance the capacity and efficiency of government agencies responsible for public service delivery, ensuring effective implementation of policies and programs.
  • Reduce corruption: Better utilization of technical assistance and skilled human resource can be used to reduce corruption.
Reason for under-utilization and mis-utilization of public funds:
  • Inefficient Governance and Bureaucracy: Inadequate administrative capacity, red tape, and delays in decision-making - result in delayed projects, cost overruns, and poor implementation.
    E.g.: Bureaucratic inefficiencies causing delays in project approvals, under-utilizing allocated funds.
  • Lack of Accountability and Transparency: Weak mechanisms for monitoring and accountability - lack of transparency in procurement processes, and corruption.
    E.g.: A government official misusing public health funds, depriving intended beneficiaries.
  • Political Interference: lead to misallocation based on political considerations rather than merit or developmental priorities, neglecting areas with genuine needs.
    E.g.: Funds may be diverted to projects based on political interests rather than their potential impact on development.
  • Budgetary issues: Improper budgetary allocation and delayed release of funds. Example, “March rush”.
  • Inadequate Capacity and Skills: Lack of technical expertise and capacity within public institutions can lead to ineffective utilization of funds.
  • Implications of Under-utilization of Public Funds:
    • Incomplete infrastructure projects lead to delays, wasted resources, and unfulfilled benefits.
    • Missed development goals hinder progress in sectors like healthcare, education, and poverty reduction.
    • Wastage of taxpayer money, reducing the overall efficiency and effectiveness of public spending.
  • Implications of Mis-utilization of Public Funds:
    • Corruption and embezzlement result in significant loss of public resources.
    • Inadequate service delivery in critical sectors like healthcare, education, and infrastructure.
    • Weakened public trust in government institutions and processes.
    • Erosion of public trust and confidence in the government, which can undermine social cohesion and democratic processes.
  • Economic and Social Consequences:
    • Economic inefficiency due to wasted resources and missed opportunities for growth.
    • Increased socio-economic disparities and inequality.
Efforts must be made to improve the bureaucratic processes, enhance transparency, and promote a citizen participation in public institutions.
2. (b) “Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption”. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer (150 words)
Non-performance of one’s duty is considered to be next to corruption depending upon the situation and intent. Corruption extends beyond financial misconduct and includes the failure of public servants to fulfil their duties and responsibilities.
Non-performance of duty as a form of corruption:
  • Breach of Trust: Public servants are entrusted with the responsibility of serving the public interest and executing their duties diligently.
    E.g.: Police officer refusing to file complaint.
  • Wasting public resources: Affects the delivery of public services, leading to inefficiency, delays financial loss.
    E.g.: Poor coordination between ministries leading to newly laid roads being dug up.
  • Misuse of Power: Public servants hold positions of authority and are expected to exercise their powers responsibly.
    E.g.: Vyapam scam (2013): Government officials manipulated entrance exams, enabling corruption through bribery and irregular admissions.
  • Misleading public: By non-performance one is creating a sense of misleading acts that is equal to corruption.
    E.g.: A public official fails to clear pension of a citizen leading to failure to perform his duty.
However, it is important to note that not all instances of non-performance may be categorized as corruption. Factors such as inadequate resources, systemic inefficiencies, or personal constraints can contribute to non-performance. They must given sufficient ethical and technical training and resources.
Therefore, each case must be evaluated individually to determine if it amounts to corruption or other factors are involved.
3. (a) What is meant by the term ‘constitutional morality’? How does one uphold constitutional morality? (150 words)
The term 'constitutional morality' refers to the adherence and commitment to the principles and values enshrined in the constitution of a country. It encompasses the spirit and essence of constitutional provisions, such as equality, justice, liberty, and fundamental rights. Constitutional morality emphasizes the idea that individuals, including public officials, should act in accordance with constitutional principles and promote the ideals of democracy, secularism, and social justice.
Upholding constitutional morality involves:
  • Respect for Constitutional Provisions: It entails acknowledging and respecting the fundamental rights, duties, and principles outlined in the constitution.
  • Compliance with the Rule of Law: Individuals must abide by the laws and regulations established within the constitutional framework, ensuring that legal provisions are upheld and implemented.
  • Protection of Rights: Upholding constitutional morality requires safeguarding the rights and liberties of individuals, promoting inclusivity, and combating any form of discrimination or injustice.
    E.g.: Advocating for the rights of marginalized communities, such as LGBTQ+ rights
  • Accountability and Transparency: Individuals in positions of power should be accountable to the constitution and the public, acting in a transparent manner while exercising their authority.
  • Judicial Activism: It interprets the Constitution and safeguarding the rights of citizens thereby act as a powerful tool to enforce constitutional morality.
    E.g.: Vishaka vs State of Rajasthan (1997) SC laid down guidelines ensure proper treatment of women in all workplaces.
  • Participating in the democratic process: Participating in public debates, and engaging with elected representatives can contribute to upholding constitutional morality by influencing policy decisions and holding the government accountable.
    E.g.: Voting in election influence government to shape policies and laws in accordance with constitutional principles.
  • Civic Education: Education and awareness about constitutional morality are crucial to upholding it. This involves promoting civic education and engaging citizens in democratic processes.
    E.g.: Conducting awareness programmes in schools.
By adhering to these principles and actively participating in the democratic process, individuals can contribute to upholding constitutional morality and preserving the democratic fabric of their society.

3. (b) What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? How does it manifest in the public domain? (150 words)

'Crisis of conscience' refers to a state of moral dilemma or internal conflict experienced by individuals when their personal beliefs, values, or ethical principles clash with external pressures, societal norms, or organizational expectations. This crisis can occur when individuals are torn between personal beliefs and the demands of their roles or responsibilities.
Manifestations of crisis of conscience in the public domain
  • Conflicts of Interest: Public officials may face a crisis of conscience when their personal interests clash with interests of the public.
    E.g.: A government official being pressured to make decisions in favour of a close relative.
  • Whistle blowing: Witnessing misconduct in organizations may lead to a moral dilemma.
    E.g.: Employee uncovering fraud faces career risk when deciding to report.
  • Public Policy and Decision-making: Crisis of conscience arise when making decisions that impact the well-being of society, especially when they face conflicting interests or pressures.
    E.g.: A legislator deliberating on a controversial bill, torn between the demands of their constituents, party loyalty, and personal convictions.
  • Moral Dilemmas in Public Service: Public servants, such as doctors, police officers, or civil servants, may encounter ethical dilemmas that challenge their professional and personal integrity.
    E.g.: A doctor who is asked to perform a medical procedure that goes against their ethical principles, such as performing an abortion or assisted suicide.
  • Environmental and Social Concerns: Professionals in impactful industries navigate profit versus sustainability and social responsibility.
    E.g.: Manufacturing executive torn between environmental compliance and short-term financial gains.
  • Corruption vs. Integrity: A journalist who is asked to publish a news article that contains false or misleading information that goes against their journalistic principles of truth and accuracy
To navigate a crisis of conscience effectively, individuals need to rely on ethical decision-making frameworks, seek guidance from mentors or trusted advisors, consider long-term consequences over short-term gains, and prioritize the greater good for society.
4. (a) Explain the basic principles of citizens’ charter movement and bring out its importance. (150 words)
Citizen’s Charter is a document of voluntary commitments made by a government organization to the citizens/client groups in respect of the services/schemes being provided to them or to be provided to them. It revolves around the principles of transparency, accountability, and citizen-centric governance. The basic principles of the citizens' charter movement include:
The basic principles of citizen’s charter:
  • Service Orientation: Citizens' charters focus on delivering quality services to citizens efficiently and effectively. It emphasizes the rights and expectations of citizens as service recipients.
  • Information Disclosure: The movement emphasizes the disclosure of relevant information to citizens, ensuring transparency in service delivery.
    E.g.: Right to Information Act (2005) provides citizens with the right to access information held by public authorities.
  • Grievance Redressal: Citizens' charters prioritize the establishment of robust grievance Redressal mechanisms and ensures prompt and fair resolution.
    E.g.: Consumer Protection Act (2019 provides a mechanism to seek Redressal for issues such as unfair trade practices, deficient services, or product defects.
  • Accountability and Performance Measurement: The movement holds public officials accountable for their actions and ensures continuous improvement in service quality based on set standards.E.g.: Jan Dhan Yojana has provision of passbooks and electronic banking services, ensuring accountability in managing funds and transactions.
Importance of the citizens' charter movement:
  • Enhances transparency and accountability by making service providers more responsive to citizens' needs.
  • Citizen’s participation: Promotes citizen engagement and participation which leads to greater satisfaction and trust in public institutions.
    E.g.: Department of Pension seeks continuous feedback from citizens through citizen charter.
  • Increases efficiency and effectiveness by encouraging innovation, best practices, and performance monitoring.
    E.g.: Public Distribution System (PDS) reduce corruption and ensure targeted delivery of food grains by establishing grievance redressal mechanisms for citizens.
  • Empowering citizens: It promotes transparency, accountability, and citizen participation by allowing individuals to seek information about government policies, decisions, and actions.
    E.g.: RTI Act empowered Indian citizens by providing them the right to access information.
Thus citizens’ charter movement is a crucial tool for promoting transparency, accountability, and good governance. By implementing the principles of the citizens’ charter, organizations can build trust with citizens and create a culture of service excellence.
4. (b) There is a view that the official secrets act is an obstacle to the implementation of Rights to Information act. Do you agree with the view? Discuss (150 words)
The Official Secrets Act (OSA) was enacted in 1923 to safeguard sensitive government information from unauthorized disclosure whereas the Right to Information Act (RTI) was enacted in 2005 to promote transparency and accountability in government functioning.
OSA obstacle to RTI:
  • Conflicting provisions: The OSA, enacted to protect national security and sensitive information, can potentially restrict the flow of information and hinder transparency since government can declare anything as secret or classified.
  • Broad definitions: The OSA's provisions, such as broad definitions of secrecy and stringent penalties, may deter public officials from sharing information, even when it is within the scope of the RTI Act.
  • Potential for abuse: Government authorities sometimes invoke the Official Secrets Act to withhold information that should be disclosed under the RTI Act.
  • Fear of persecution and reprisals: The existence and enforcement of the OSA can create a chilling effect on potential whistleblowers fearing legal consequences and personal repercussions.
    E.g.: Employees being hesitant to disclose instances of corruption due to the fear of prosecution under the OSA.
  • Misuse: The law is misused for booking journalists when they publicise information that causes embarrassment to the government.
    E.g.: Journalist Tarakant Dwivedi was booked for criminal trespass under the OSA 2011. An RTI query later revealed that the armoury he visited was not a prohibited area.
However, it is important to note that the OSA also serves legitimate purposes, such as protecting sensitive national security matters.
E.g.: Classified and sensitive documents on national security issues like Nuclear Installations, Movement of Troops etc. is of little use to the public and also jeopardise the safety of the nation. Striking the right balance between national security and the citizens' right to information is crucial. Additionally, RTI section 8 (2) provides that notwithstanding OSA provisions a public authority may allow access to information, in public interest.
Thus, amendments to the OSA regarding definitions, along with awareness and sensitization of public officials, can help overcome any obstacles and ensure that the implementation of the RTI Act is not unduly impeded while maintaining necessary safeguards for national security.
5. (a) What do you understand by probity in governance? Based on your understanding of the term, suggest measures for ensuring probity in government. (150 words)
Probity in governance refers to the adherence to the highest standards of integrity, honesty, and ethical behaviour in the conduct of public affairs. It encompasses principles such as transparency, accountability, and fairness in decision-making, ensuring that public officials act in the best interest of the public and maintain public trust.
Measures for ensuring probity in governance:
  • Strengthening Ethical Frameworks: Implementing and enforcing robust ethical codes and standards for public officials.
    E.g.: Code of conduct and ethics for all departments.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Promoting transparency in government operations, including budgetary processes, procurement, and decision-making.
    E.g.: Proactive disclosure of information under the Right to Information Act.
  • Whistleblower Protection: Creating a safe environment for individuals to report corruption or unethical practices, safeguarding whistleblowers from reprisals, and establishing effective mechanisms for addressing complaints.
  • Strengthening Oversight Mechanisms: Enhancing the role of audit bodies, anti-corruption agencies, to independently monitor government activities, investigate cases of corruption, and ensure adherence to probity standards.
    E.g.: Establishment of Central Vigilance Commission in investigating corruption cases.
  • Promoting Ethical Leadership: Training and professional development opportunities focused on ethical decision-making and promoting values-driven leadership.
  • Grievance redressal: Easy access of government officials to the public is important for grievance redressal. It can be ensured through:
    E.g.: Availability of Contact numbers of senior servants to Public
  • Encouraging citizen participation and engagement: Promoting mechanisms for citizen participation, such as public consultations, social audits, and grievance redressal systems, to foster transparency and accountability.
    E.g.: The implementation of social audits MGNREGA Act allowing citizens to monitor the implementation of projects and expenditure.
By continuing to strengthen measures to ensure probity in governance, India can build a more transparent, accountable, and effective government that works in the best interests of its citizens.
5. (b) “Emotional Intelligence is the ability to make your emotions work for you instead of against you.” Do you agree with this view? Discuss. (150 words)
Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the capacity to recognize, understand, and manage one's own emotions effectively, as well as being attuned to the emotions of others.
Ability to make emotions in your interest rather than against you:
  • Self-Awareness: EI empowers individuals to utilize their emotions in a constructive manner, leading to better self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, and relationship management.
    E.g.: A salesperson with high emotional intelligence can read customers' emotions, understand their needs, and adjust their approach accordingly.
  • Positive attitude: By understanding and harnessing their emotions, individuals can make informed decisions, adapt to challenging situations, and build strong interpersonal connections. E.g.: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the CM of Kerala, Pinarayi Vijayan, demonstrated emotional intelligence by leading from the front and inspiring confidence in the public.
  • Controlling Negative emotions: With high emotional intelligence, individuals can navigate conflicts, respond to stress more effectively, and maintain better mental well-being.
  • Self-Regulation: It helps individuals build resilience, manage conflicts with empathy and understanding, and foster healthy relationships.
  • Maintaining good relationships: EI enables individuals to handle workplace dynamics, communicate effectively, and lead teams with empathy and emotional support.
    E.g.: A team leader, motivate their team, and foster a positive and collaborative atmosphere.
However, if unchecked, emotions can work against a person making him take emotional than rational decisions. Being overcome with emotions can lead to inability to function. It can make a person biased and lose public trust.
Measures for developing EI:
  • Developing self-awareness and mindfulness practices.
    E.g.: Practising Yoga, Meditation
  • Learning how to regulate emotions through stress-management techniques. E.g.: Talking to parents, friends etc
  • Improving communication and active listening skills to better understand others.
  • Developing empathy by putting oneself in others’ shoes.
  • Practicing conflict resolution and problem-solving skills.
Overall, emotional intelligence provides individuals with the tools to harness their emotions for personal growth, effective communication, and positive interpersonal relationships, ultimately contributing to their overall success and well-being.
6. What do each of the following quotations mean to you?
(a) “An unexamined life is not worth living.” – Socrates (150 words)
The quotation by Socrates highlights the importance of introspection and self-reflection in leading a meaningful life. It is not enough to simply go through the motions of daily life without considering the bigger picture.
The quote signifies the significance of constantly questioning our beliefs, values, actions, and choices. By examining our lives, we gain insights into our true selves, identify areas for growth, and strive for self-improvement. This can help us make more conscious choices and live in accordance with our true selves.
Why unexamined life is not worth living?
  • An unexamined human life, is deprived of the meaning and purpose of existence.
  • It does not focus on self-awareness and self-regulation, leave apart helping others.
  • Person is unaware of his strengths, weaknesses and live as a robotic life without contributing much to humanity.
  • It is devoid of knowledge development and is superficial at best
Importance of examined life:
  • Value of Self-Reflection: Taking time to reflect on one's values, goals, and actions, and considering their alignment with personal beliefs and principles.
    E.g.: For instance, Mahatma Gandhi believed in importance of introspection as explained in his autobiography “My experiments with truth”.
  • Pursuit of Wisdom: Engaging in intellectual pursuits, seeking knowledge, and challenging one's own assumptions to gain a deeper understanding of oneself and the world.
  • Conscious Decision-Making: By examining one's life, individuals can make more conscious and deliberate choices.
    E.g.: Considering the consequences and ethical implications of decisions before acting, rather than acting on impulse or societal pressures.
  • Personal Growth and fulfilment: Engaging in activities that foster personal development, such as seeking feedback, setting goals, and continuously learning and evolving.
  • Authenticity and Meaning: By examining one's life, individuals can strive for authenticity and find deeper meaning in their experiences.
    E.g.: Living in accordance with one's true self and pursuing activities and relationships that bring genuine joy and fulfilment.
By embracing self-reflection and actively examining one's life, individuals can gain a deeper understanding of themselves, make conscious choices, and lead lives that are more meaningful, authentic, and aligned with their values and aspirations.
6. (b) “A man is but the product of his thoughts. What he thinks, he becomes.” – M.K.Gandhi (150 words)
The quote by M.K. Gandhi, highlights the power of our thoughts and the impact they have on our lives. It suggests that our thoughts have a profound influence on our behaviour, choices, and ultimately, our identity.
Man becomes what he thinks:
  • Motivates and make goal oriented: By nurturing optimistic, compassionate, and empowering thoughts, we can develop resilience, motivation, and a growth-oriented mindset.
    E.g.: Dhirubhai Ambani of Reliance Industries, started out with a small textile business but through his strong belief in his ideas and hard work, he built a large business empire.
  • Overcoming Limiting Beliefs: It helps in challenging and changing limiting beliefs can empower individuals to achieve their full potential.
  • Upholding Integrity and Ethics: Hold strong ethical principles and believe in the importance of honesty and integrity become exemplars of these values.
    E.g.: E. Sreedharan, popularly known as the "Metro Man”, played a pivotal role in Delhi Metro project by holding transparency, accountability, and delivering high-quality infrastructure.
  • Positive Thinking and Well-being: The quote suggests that cultivating positive thoughts can contribute to overall well-being and happiness.
  • Innovating for Development: Civil servants who embrace innovative thinking and believe in the power of ideas can drive impactful development initiatives.
    E.g.: Satyendra Dubey, an IES officer, blow the whistle on corruption in the NHAI, making him a symbol of integrity and a catalyst for reforms in the Indian bureaucracy.
If a person constantly thinks negative thoughts about themselves, such as "I am not good enough" they may start to believe those thoughts and act accordingly. This can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy in which the person does not achieve their full potential.
Therefore, it is essential to cultivate positive thoughts through mindfulness practices, gratitude journaling, and surrounding ourselves with positive people and environments.
6. (c) “Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world.” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (150 words)
The quote by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam shows how world peace can follow from goodness of individuals. It also reflects the interconnectedness between individual virtues, familial harmony, societal order, and global peace.
How righteousness in the heart leads to better nation and world?
  • Righteousness and beauty in character: Righteousness means doing the right thing based on moral principles. They build beautiful character that inspires others.
    E.g.: Righteous person possesses qualities such as honesty, integrity, empathy and respect for others.
  • Harmony in the home: When family members have beautiful characters, they live in harmony.
    E.g.: This provides a nurturing environment for children to learn values and ethics becoming
responsible citizens
  • Order in the nation: When responsible citizens form a majority, it leads to the development of an ordered nation.
    E.g.: Asoka promoted the code of Dhamma in his empire, which was the set ideal social behaviour for promoting peace and enabling prosperity in the kingdom.
  • Peace in the world: When there is order in the nation, it contributes to world peace.
    E.g.: Nations with strong democratic ideals uphold human rights, respect diversity, and promote equality,
Thus the quote emphasizes the importance of nurturing values, ethics, and righteousness in our hearts to foster harmony, order, and peace at various levels of society. It serves as a reminder of the responsibility each individual holds in contributing to a more peaceful and harmonious world by embodying righteousness in their thoughts, actions, and character.


7. You are the heading the rescue operations in an area affected by severe natural calamity, thousands of people are rendered homeless and deprived of food, drinking water and other basic amenities. Rescue work has been disrupted by heavy rainfall and damaged to supply routes. The local people are seeding with anger against the delayed limited rescue operations. When your team reaches the affected area, the people there heckle and even assault some of the team members. One of your team member is even severely injured. Faced with this crisis some team member plead with you to call off the operations freeing threats to their life.
In such trying circumstances, what will be your response? Examine the qualities of a public servant which will be required to manage the situations. (250 words)
The case study presents a situation where a severe natural calamity has caused extensive damage and left thousands of people homeless. Alleged delay has caused hostility and physical assault.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

In such a challenging and crisis-ridden situation, my response as the head of the rescue operations would be focused on prioritizing the safety and well-being of both the affected people and my team members. I would adopt the following approach:
  • Assess the Situation: I would first evaluate the severity of the crisis, considering the immediate needs of the affected people, the condition of supply routes, and the level of hostility displayed by the local population.
  • Ensure Safety and Security: I would take immediate measures to ensure team’s protection, providing medical attention and steps to prevent further harm. I would request them to show empathy and professionalism.
  • Establish Communication Channels: I would initiate dialogue with the local community leaders, explaining our limitations and the challenges we face in a transparent manner. Ensure them that their lives are our priority. This will build trust.
  • Strengthen Local Engagement: Involving local community members in the rescue operations will empower the community, fostering a sense of ownership and cooperation.
  • Mobilize Additional Resources: To overcome the disruption caused by damaged supply routes and heavy rainfall, I would coordinate with relevant authorities and agencies to secure additional resources.
Qualities of a public servant required to manage such situations include:
  • Leadership: A public servant must maintain composure and guiding the team during challenging times, inspiring confidence, and fostering a sense of purpose.
  • Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and empathize with the emotions helps in managing conflicts, maintaining composure, and making informed decisions.
  • Effective Communication: Clear and compassionate communication is essential in gaining the trust of the affected people and team members.
  • Adaptability and Resilience: The capacity to adapt to changing circumstances and bounce back from setbacks is vital in managing crisis situations and to find innovative solutions.
By demonstrating these qualities, a public servant can effectively manage crisis situations, navigate challenges, and provide essential support to those in need, fostering resilience and rebuilding communities in the aftermath of a severe natural calamity.
8. Honesty and uprightness are the hallmarks of a civil servants. Civil servants possessing these qualities are considered as a back bone of any strong organizations. In line of duty, they take various decisions, at time some become bonafide mistakes. As long as such decisions, are not taken intentionally and do not benefit personally, the officer cannot be said to be guilty. Though such decisions may, at times, lead to unforeseen adverse consequences in the long term.
In the recent past, a few instances have surfaced where in civil servants has been implicated for bonafide mistakes. They have often been prosecuted and even imprisoned. These instances have greatly rattled the moral fiber of the civil servants.
How does this trend affect the functioning of civil services? What measures can be taken to ensure that honest civil servants are not implicated for bonafide mistakes on their part? Justify your answer. (250 words)
The trend of implicating honest civil servants for bona fide mistakes has significant implications on the functioning of civil services.
  • It erodes the morale and confidence of civil servants
  • Hampers their ability to take decisions and perform their duties effectively.
  • The fear of being prosecuted or imprisoned for genuine errors creates a culture of risk aversion fearing potential repercussions.
  • This results in bureaucratic paralysis, delays in decision-making,
  • Causes lack of innovation and efficiency in public service delivery.
To ensure that honest civil servants are not implicated for bona fide mistakes, several measures can be taken:
  • Strong Legal Framework: Laws and regulations should be clear in distinguishing between honest errors made in the line of duty and acts of corruption or personal gain.
  • Procedural Safeguards: Implementing procedural safeguards such as independent oversight mechanisms, internal checks and balances, and review processes can help evaluate decisions made by civil servants.
  • Training and Capacity Building: Training should emphasize ethical conduct, accountability, and prudent decision-making, ensuring civil servants have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities and mitigate risks
  • Supportive Work Environment: Fostering a supportive work environment that encourages learning from mistakes and promotes a culture of trust and openness - establishing mechanisms seek guidance and clarification and access to legal advice when needed.
  • Appreciation of Public Servants: Recognizing and appreciating the efforts of honest civil servants is essential to boost their morale and restore their confidence.
Justifying these measures is essential to strike a balance between holding public servants accountable for intentional wrongdoing and protecting them from undue prosecution for bona fide mistakes. It will restore the confidence of civil servants, allowing them to perform their duties without fear of unwarranted consequences. This, in turn, will foster a more efficient, accountable, and transparent civil service that can effectively serve the needs of the public and contribute to the overall development and progress of the nation.
9. An apparel manufacturing company having large number of women employees was losing sales due to various factors. The company hired a reputed marketing executive, who increased the volume of sales within a short span of time. However, some unconfirmed reports came up regarding his indulgence in sexual harassment at the work place.
After sometime a women employee launched a formal complaint to the management against the marketing executive about sexually harassing her. Faced with the companies’ indifference, in not taking cognizance of her grievances, she lodged an FIR with police.
Realizing the sensitivity and gravity of the situation, the company called the women employee to negotiate. In that she was offered a hefty sum of money to withdraw the complaint and the FIR and also give in writing that the marketing executive is not involved in the case.
Identify the ethical issues involved in this case. What options are available to the women employee? (250 words)
The case study involves an apparel manufacturing company that hired a marketing executive who increased sales but was later accused of sexual harassment.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

The case presented raises several ethical issues that need to be addressed
  • Sexual Harassment: Case involves the allegation of violation of the woman employee's dignity, safety, and well-being – need to ensure fair and impartial investigation.
  • Corporate Indifference: Failing to address complaints of sexual harassment promptly and appropriately disregards the employee's rights and perpetuates a culture of misconduct.
  • Attempted Bribery: Attempting to silence the victim and suppress the truth through financial incentives undermines the pursuit of justice and accountability.
  • Accountability and Transparency: Organizations have a responsibility to provide a safe and supportive work environment, address complaints promptly.
Options available to the woman employee
  • Pursuing Legal Action: The woman employee has already lodged an FIR. She can continue to cooperate with the authorities and provide any necessary evidence to support her case.
  • Seeking Support from Advocacy Groups: Engaging with advocacy groups or can provide the woman employee with guidance, advice, and emotional support throughout the legal process.
  • Reporting to Higher Authorities: If the company's management continues cover-up attempt, she can report the matter to higher authorities, such as labour unions, regulatory bodies, or government agencies responsible for labour rights and workplace safety.
  • Documenting Evidence: She needs to document any evidence communication records, emails, or witnesses related to the harassment and the attempted bribery.
  • Seeking Legal Counsel: It can provide the woman employee with legal advice, representation, and guidance on how to navigate the legal proceedings effectively.
It is crucial to ensure that the woman employee's rights are protected, and a fair investigation is conducted to address the allegations of sexual harassment. Companies must uphold their ethical obligations to provide a safe and respectful work environment, promote accountability, and take appropriate disciplinary actions against any employee found guilty of misconduct.
10. In a modern democratic polity there is a concept of political executive and permanent executive elected people’s representatives forms the political executive and bureaucracy forms the permanent executive. Ministers frame policy decisions and bureaucrats execute these. In the initial decades after independence, relationship between the permanent executives and the political executives were characterized by mutual understanding, respect, and cooperation, without encroaching upon each other’s domain.
However, in the subsequent decades the situation has changed. There are instances of the political executive insisting upon the permanent executives to follow its agenda. Respect for an appreciation of an upright bureaucrats has declined. There is an increasing tendency among the political executive to get involved in routine administrative matters such as transfers, posting etc. Under this scenario, there is a definitive trend towards ‘politicization of bureaucracy’. The raising materialism and acquisitiveness in social life has also adversely impacted upon the ethical values of both the permanent executive and the political executive.
What are the consequences of this ‘politicization of bureaucracy? Discuss. (250 words)
The 'politicization of bureaucracy' refers to the phenomenon where political executives exert increased control and influence over the permanent executive, compromising the autonomy, neutrality, and effectiveness of the bureaucracy. This trend has several consequences:
  • Weakening of Meritocracy: Qualified and experienced bureaucrats may be sidelined in favour of individuals with political affiliations in cases of posting, transfers etc, undermining the effectiveness and efficiency of the bureaucracy.
  • Erosion of Professionalism: When bureaucrats feel compelled to prioritize political interests over the public interest, it can negatively impact their objectivity, integrity, and commitment to serving the common good.
  • Lack of Continuity and Stability: Frequent transfers and postings influenced by political considerations disrupt the continuity and stability of bureaucratic roles.
  • Diminished Public Trust: When citizens perceive that decisions and actions are driven by political motives rather than the welfare of the people, it undermines the legitimacy and credibility of government institutions.
  • Reduced Accountability: Politicization may lead to a diffusion of accountability. Bureaucrats may be forced to comply with political directives that may be contrary to good governance practices, creating a lack of transparency and accountability.
To address the consequences of politicization, certain measures can be taken
  • Strengthening Bureaucratic Autonomy: Implementing mechanisms to insulate bureaucrats from political pressures and ensuring their appointments and promotions are based on merit can help restore their independence.
  • Clear Role Definition: Clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of both political and permanent executives can foster better cooperation, mutual respect, and understanding.
  • Professional Development and Ethical Training: Continuous professional development programs and ethical training can reinforce the ethical values and integrity of bureaucrats.
  • Strengthening Oversight Mechanisms: Enhancing oversight mechanisms, such as independent audit bodies, anti-corruption agencies, and parliamentary committees, can help ensure accountability.
  • Promoting Public Awareness and Engagement: Encouraging citizen participation and engagement in governance processes can also hold political executives accountable and reduce politicization tendencies.
By addressing the politicization of bureaucracy, governments can restore the integrity, professionalism, and efficiency of the permanent executive, allowing it to effectively serve the interests of the people and uphold the principles of good governance.
11. In one of the districts of a frontier state, narcotics menace has been rampant. This has results in money laundering, mushrooming of poppy farming, arms smuggling and near stalling of education. The system is on the verge of collapse. The situation has been further worsened by unconfirmed reports that local politicians as well as some senior police officers are providing surreptitious patronage to the drug mafia. At that point of time a woman police officer, known for her skills in handling such situations is appointed as superintendent of police to bring the situation to normalcy.
If you are the same police officer, identify the various dimensions of the crisis. Based on your understanding, suggest measures to deal with the crisis. (250 words)
The case study highlights a district facing a narcotics crisis, including drug trafficking, corruption, and social instability.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

As the appointed superintendent of police in the district facing a rampant narcotics menace, I would identify the following dimensions of the crisis:
  • Narcotics menace: drug abuse, trafficking, and criminal activities.
  • Money laundering: Illicit funds being generated and circulated.
  • Poppy farming: Uncontrolled cultivation of poppy plants to produce narcotics.
  • Arms smuggling: Illegal trade of firearms and weapons.
  • Education crisis: Deterioration of the education system due to drug trade.
  • Political and police corruption: Alleged collusion of local politicians and senior police officers with drug mafia
To deal with the crisis, the following measures can be implemented
  • Strengthen Law Enforcement: Enhance the capacity and training of the police force, resources, and technology to combat the narcotics menace effectively. Implement specialized anti-narcotics units and establish intelligence networks.
  • Conduct Comprehensive Investigations: Launch thorough investigations into the alleged collusion between politicians, senior police officers, and the drug mafia. Establish an independent task force or commission to probe the matter ensuring transparency and accountability.
  • Community Engagement and Awareness: Encourage citizens to report drug-related activities, provide protection for whistleblowers, and establish rehabilitation programs for drug users.
  • Collaboration with Intelligence Agencies: Collaborate with national and international intelligence agencies to exchange information, track the sources of drugs, and dismantle drug trafficking networks.
  • Support Socio-economic Development: Promote alternative livelihood options for farmers involved in poppy farming, create employment opportunities, and improve access to education, healthcare, and social services.
  • Protection and Empowerment of Women: Empower women through leadership roles in law enforcement, establish support systems for victims, and promote gender-sensitive approaches in rehabilitation and awareness programs.
Dealing with such a crisis requires a comprehensive, multi-dimensional approach. By implementing these measures, it is possible to combat the narcotics menace, restore the rule of law, and revitalize the district, fostering peace, security, and socio-economic well-being.
12. In recent times, there has been an increasing concern in India to develop effective civil service ethics, code of conduct, transparency measures, ethics and integrity systems and anti-corruption agencies. In view of this, there is need being felt to focus on three specific areas, which are directly relevant to the problems of internalizing integrity and ethics in the civil services. These are as follows:
a) Anticipating specific threats to ethical standards and integrity in the civil services,
Strengthening the ethical competence of civil servant and
b) Developing administrative processes and practices which promote ethical values and integrity in civil services.
c) Suggest institutional measures to address the above three issues. (250 words)
To address the three specific areas related to internalizing integrity and ethics in the civil services, the following institutional measures can be implemented:
a) Anticipating specific threats to ethical standards and integrity in the civil services:
  • Establishing an Ethics and Integrity Unit: This unit can conduct regular risk assessments, analyze emerging trends, and develop strategies to mitigate risks.
  • Whistleblower Protection Mechanism: This will encourage civil servants to come forward with information and provide safeguards against retaliation.
  • Conducting Periodic Ethical Audits: These audits can assess compliance with codes of conduct and ethics, identify areas of vulnerability, and recommend corrective actions.
b) Strengthening the ethical competence of civil servants:
  • Ethics Training and Capacity Building: Provide comprehensive and continuous training on ethical decision-making, conflict of interest, accountability, and transparency.
  • Mentoring Programs: These programs can provide guidance, promote ethical behaviour, and facilitate the sharing of best practices.
  • Ethical Leadership Development: Encourage civil servants to lead by example, uphold ethical standards, and foster a culture of integrity within their respective organizations.
c) Developing administrative processes and practices that promote ethical values and integrity in civil services:
  • Transparent Recruitment and Promotion Processes: Establish clear and objective criteria for selection and promotion, reducing the potential for favouritism or corruption.
  • Strengthening Disciplinary Mechanisms: Ensure that disciplinary actions are fair, proportionate, and consistent, sending a strong message that unethical behaviour will not be tolerated.
  • Citizen Engagement and Feedback Mechanisms: Implement mechanisms such as complaint redressal systems, public satisfaction surveys, and citizen charters to enhance transparency and accountability.
These institutional measures can contribute to developing effective civil service ethics, strengthening the ethical competence of civil servants, and promoting integrity in administrative processes. By prioritizing ethics and integrity, India can foster a culture of trust, accountability, and good governance within the civil services, ultimately serving the interests of the public and promoting sustainable development.



1. (a) State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the context of civil services and bring out their importance. (150 words)
Values are essential components of organisational culture and are instrumental in determining, guiding and informing behaviour. For bureaucracies, adherence to high level public service values can generate substantial public trust and confidence.
The three basic values that are considered universal in the context of civil services are:
  • Integrity: This value emphasizes the importance of honesty and adherence to ethical principles. Civil servants are expected to act with impartiality, transparency, and accountability in their actions and decisions.
    E.g.: A civil servant with integrity would refuse bribes or illegal favors, prioritize the public interest over personal gain,
  • Impartiality: Impartiality means treating all individuals and groups equally, without favoritism or bias.
    E.g.: An impartial civil servant would assess applications, grant permits, or allocate resources solely based on merit, without
  • Professionalism: Professionalism refers to the competence and expertise required to perform the duties and responsibilities of a civil servant.
    E.g.: This helps in acquiring and updating skills and knowledge, and the ability to work effectively with colleagues and stakeholders.
  • Integrity: It ensures that civil servants are accountable and responsible for their actions, which in turn, helps to promote a culture of good governance and ethical behaviour.
  • Impartiality: In the civil services, impartiality is essential to ensure fair decision-making, non-discrimination, and the effective delivery of public services. It upholds the principle of equal treatment and protects the rights and interests of all citizens.
  • Professionalism: It is critical for ensuring that civil servants are able to provide high-quality services to the public. It also helps to establish the credibility and legitimacy of the civil service, which is important for maintaining public trust.
These values are essential for promoting good governance, ethical behaviour, and accountability, and for ensuring that civil servants are able to provide high-quality services to the public.
1. (b) Distinguish between “Code of ethics” and “Code of conduct” with suitable examples. (150 words)
Code of Ethics: Code of Ethics are referred to as a values, which behaves like the Constitution with general principles to guide behaviour, outlining a set of principles that affect decision-making.
  • E.g.: It might stipulate that ABC Corporation is committed to environmental protection and green initiatives.
Code of Conduct: It is a set of rules, standards, principles and values outlining the expected behaviour for the members of an organisation.
  • E.g.: It might forbid sexual harassment, racial intimidation or viewing inappropriate or unauthorized content on company computers.
Difference between Code of ethics and Code of conduct:
Code of Ethics Code of conduct
1.    Include core ethical values, principles and ideals of the organization 1. Contains specific practices and behaviour, that are followed or restricted under the organisation.
2. General and broad in nature 2. Specific and narrow in range
3. Governs decision-making 3. Governs actions
4. Designed to provide a set of values for decision-making 4. Expectations about which actions are required, acceptable or prohibited – less use of ethical judgement
5. Focus on values – aspirational document 5. Focus on rules and compliance – Directional document
6. Publicly disclosed 6. Usually accessible only to employees
7. E.g.: Nolan’s 7 principles for public servants 7. E.g.: All India Services (Conduct) Rules, 1968
Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct are the standards that a group must adhere to, so as to remain the member of the organisation. These help the institutions in regulating the day to day business efficiently.

2. (a) What is mean by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest? (150 words)

Public interest refers to the common good or welfare of the public at large, rather than the interests of a particular individual or group.
The principles and procedures to be followed by civil servants in public interest include:
  • Integrity: Civil servants must act with honesty, impartiality, and fairness in all their dealings, and avoid conflicts of interest.
    E.g.: Vinod Rai, a former CAG demonstrated integrity and accountability exposing irregularities and financial mismanagement in government departments.
  • Accountability: Civil servants must be accountable for their actions and decisions, and ensure that they are transparent and open to scrutiny.
    E.g.: Kiran Bedi, IPS officer, is known for her strong commitment to impartiality and accountability.
  • Responsiveness: Civil servants must be responsive to the needs and concerns of the public, and provide high-quality services in a timely and efficient manner. 
    E.g.: N. R. Narayana Murthy, the co-founder of Infosys, exemplifies the principles of professionalism and public service orientation.
  • Participation: Civil servants must actively engage with the public and stakeholders, and seek their input and feedback in decision-making processes.
  • Professionalism: Civil servants must adhere to high professional standards, and continuously develop their skills and knowledge to better serve the public.
    E.g.: K. Kasturirangan, a former Chairman of the ISRO, is an example of professionalism and public service orientation.
By following these principles and procedures, civil servants can ensure that their actions and decisions are in the best interest of the public, and contribute to the overall well-being and development of society.
2. (b) “The Right to Information Act is not all about citizens’ empowerment alone, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability. Discuss. (150 words)
The Right to Information Act (RTI) is a tool for citizens to access information held by public authorities. However, it is not just about citizens' empowerment; it also redefines the concept of accountability.
Role of RTI in citizen empowerment:
  • Participatory Democracy: Citizens can access information on public policies and decisions, and provide feedback to public authorities, thereby contributing to the decision-making process.
  • Access to information: The RTI Act grants citizens the right to access information held by public authorities, empowering them with knowledge about government functioning.
  • Monitoring public services: This allows citizens to track the progress, question delays, and demand efficient service delivery.
    E.g.: Citizens can seek information about the status of their applications for services like passports, ration cards, or utilities.
  • Safeguarding fundamental rights: The RTI Act protects citizens' fundamental rights by ensuring transparency and accountability in governance.
  • Empowering marginalized communities: This enables them to assert their rights, demand equitable treatment, and expose any discrimination or exclusion.
    E.g.: It allows them to access information about government schemes, entitlements, and social welfare programs designed for their benefit.
Right to Information Act (RTI) redefining the concept of accountability
  • Promoting Accountability: Public authorities are required to proactively disclose information. E.g.: The act redefines the concept of accountability by placing the onus on public authorities to justify their actions and decisions to the public.
  • Prevention of Corruption: The RTI Act helps prevent corruption by promoting transparency and accountability in public institutions.
    E.g.: Satyendra Dubey was an IES officer exposed corruption despite facing threats; he filed an RTI application seeking information on the irregularities.
  • Promoting transparency: The RTI Act ensures that government functioning becomes more transparent, allowing citizens to access information about various aspects of governance.
    E.g.: Citizens can seek information about the utilization of funds for government schemes such as MGNREGA.
  • Awareness of rights: RTI has led to awareness of rights and responsibilities as citizens among people. This led to increased accountability of officials through RTI and litigation.
    E.g.: Villagers in Madhubani district, Bihar used RTI to expose a solar-light scam, leading to charges against 200 corrupt officials.
In doing so, the Right to Information Act not only empowers citizens but also redefines the concept of accountability of public administration.
3. (a) What is mean by conflict of interest? Illustrate with examples, the difference between the actual and potential conflicts of interest. (150 words)
Conflict of interest refers to a situation where an individual or an organization has competing interests that could make it difficult to carry out their responsibilities objectively.
Actual Conflict of Interest:
  • Definition: An actual conflict of interest occurs when an individual's personal interests directly interfere with their professional responsibilities or duties.
    E.g.: A government official who owns shares in a company that is bidding for a government contract. The official's personal financial gain conflicts with their duty to ensure a fair and transparent bidding process.
  • Characteristics:
    • The conflict is present and ongoing.
    • Personal interests are directly at odds with professional obligations.
    • There is a high risk of bias, compromised decision-making, or unfair advantage.
Potential Conflict of Interest:
  • Definition: A potential conflict of interest refers to a situation where there is a possibility that an individual's personal interests could interfere with their professional duties in the future.
    E.g.: Journalist with stock options in a company may face future bias.
  • Characteristics:
    • The conflict may not currently exist but has the potential to arise
    • Personal interests could create a bias or perception of bias.
    • There is a risk of compromised objectivity or credibility in the future.
It is important to identify and manage conflicts of interest to maintain the integrity and credibility of the decision-making process. The individuals or organizations involved should disclose any potential or actual conflicts of interest and take appropriate measures to mitigate or eliminate them.
3.(b) “In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” – Warren Buffett
What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain. (150 words)
Warren Buffett's statement emphasizes the importance of integrity in hiring employees. Employees with integrity are honest, transparent, and accountable for their actions. They also adhere to ethical principles and prioritize the organization's values over personal gain.
If lacks integrity other two will kill you:
Intelligence and energy are important qualities, but they should not come at the cost of integrity. Without integrity, an individual's intelligence and energy can be used to deceive, manipulate, and cheat, ultimately leading to unethical and unlawful behaviour.
E.g.: Several high-profile corporate scandals Satyam scandal, highlight the devastating consequences that arise when individuals lack integrity.
In the present-day scenario, this statement holds significant relevance due to several reasons:
  • Trust and Ethics: In an increasingly complex and interconnected world, maintaining trust and ethical conduct is paramount.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Employee with integrity takes responsibility for their actions and rectifying the situation.
    E.g.: An employee with integrity openly communicate mistakes or discrepancies they discover in their work
  • Reputation and Brand Image: Customers and stakeholders trust and respect the organization, leading to increased loyalty and business opportunities.
  • Legal and Regulatory Compliance: An employee with integrity would adhere to legal and regulatory requirements diligently. E.g.: Avoid tax evasion.
Therefore, in the present-day scenario, it is important for organizations to prioritize integrity to build a strong culture of integrity and trust, leading to long-term success and sustainability for the organization.
4. (a) “In doing a good thing, everything is permitted which is not prohibited expressly or by clear implication”. Examine the statement with suitable examples in the context of a public servant discharging his/her duties. (150 words)
The statement implies that a public servant can undertake any action that is not explicitly or implicitly prohibited by law, while performing his/her official duties in pursuit of a good cause. However, this approach is not always appropriate as it can lead to misuse of power and infringement of the rights of individuals.
Analysis of permissible and impermissible actions with examples:
  • Legal Boundaries: Even when pursuing a "good thing," they must operate within the confines of the law. E.g.: A public servant working in a finance department cannot allocate public funds for personal projects, even if they believe it would benefit the community.
  • Ethical Guidelines: Public servants are expected to adhere to ethical standards like integrity, transparency, fairness, and accountability in their actions.
    E.g.: A police officer cannot use excessive force against a suspect, even if they believe it would help prevent crime.
  • Prohibited Actions: This could include accepting bribes, misusing public resources, or engaging in conflicts of interest that compromise their impartiality.
  • Implications and Consequences: Even if a specific action is not expressly prohibited, they should evaluate whether it may have negative consequences or compromise public trust.
    E.g.: A government official giving preferential treatment to a family member's business, although not expressly prohibited, creates a perception of favoritism.
  • Public Interest: While pursuing a "good thing," they must ensure that their actions prioritize the well-being and welfare of the community
Therefore public servants must prioritize the public interest and ensure that their actions are in line with legal and ethical standards, even when pursuing positive outcomes.
4. (b) With regard to the morality of actions, one view is that means is of paramount importance and the other view is that the ends justify the means. Which view do you think is more appropriate? Justify your answer. (150 words)
The debate between whether the means or the ends are of greater importance in assessing the morality of actions is a longstanding ethical question. While there are differing perspectives, it is essential to consider the context and the specific circumstances surrounding an action.
Means as Paramount:
  • Ethical Integrity: This perspective emphasizes that moral actions should be grounded in ethical principles and adhere to a set of rules or guidelines.
    E.g.: Refusing to use deceit or manipulation to achieve personal gain, even if the end result seems beneficial.
  • Consistency and Fairness: The focus is on ensuring consistency and fairness in how actions are carried out, regardless of the desired outcome.
    E.g.: Treating all employees equally and following fair hiring practices, rather than engaging in favouritism, even if it could lead to better short-term results for the organization.
  • Maintaining Trust and Reputation: Actions conducted with integrity foster trust among stakeholders and contribute to a positive reputation.
    E.g.: A business refusing to compromise customer privacy, even if it could lead to increased profitability or competitive advantage.
Ends Justify the Means:
  • Consequentialist Approach: This perspective prioritizes the outcome or consequences of an action as the primary factor in determining its morality.
    E.g.: Breaking into a building to save a person's life during an emergency, even though the act of breaking in would typically be considered unethical.
  • Utilitarianism: The focus is on maximizing overall happiness or well-being, even if it means engaging in morally questionable actions.
    E.g.: Example: A government enacting strict measures to improve public safety, even if it involves temporarily infringing on personal freedoms.
  • Necessity and Greater Good: Actions that may be ethically problematic are justified when they serve a greater good or prevent significant harm.
    E.g.: Undercover police officers engaging in deceptive tactics to infiltrate criminal organizations and prevent crimes or protect vulnerable individuals.
Striking a balance between means and ends, considering ethical principles, and evaluating long-term implications is crucial in assessing the morality of actions.
5. (a) Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley bond by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational policy should it resort to in dealing with unforeseen contingencies (150 words)
The construction of a dam in a mountain valley requires a rational policy that takes into consideration the possible unforeseen contingencies. The government should have a clear plan and guidelines that prioritize the welfare of the ethnic communities and the conservation of the environment.
Possible unforeseen contingencies:
  • Displacement: Since dams are land intensive it often involves deforestation, displacement of tribal people and submergence of villages among other challenges.
  • Affects livelihood: Tribals had been living in the area for generations and it would be difficult for them to find an alternative place and means of livelihood.
  • Hazards: Unforeseen challenges include landslide, earthquake, flash floods, unscientific land-use etc.
Rational policy in dealing with unforeseen contingencies:
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): Conducting EIA will help identify the possible environmental and social impacts of the construction.
  • Consultation and Participation: Engage with the ethnic communities living in the region and take their views and opinions into consideration before starting the construction.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish a robust grievance redressal mechanism that is transparent, accessible, and impartial, and should involve all stakeholders.
  • Adaptive Management and Flexibility: Contingency plans in place to deal with any unforeseen events that may occur during the construction or after the dam is built.
    E.g.: This includes natural disasters, displacement of communities, and possible conflicts that may arise.
By adopting a rational policy that considers the interests of all stakeholders and involves their participation, the government can ensure that the project is sustainable, beneficial, and socially responsible.
5. (b) Explain the process of resolving ethical dilemmas in Public Administration. (150 words)
An ethical dilemma is a situation of conflict among various principles, creating a difficulty in decision making. An ethical dilemma arises when one has to choose between ethical values and rules in order to determine the right-thing-to-do.
Process of resolving ethical dilemmas:
  • Identifying the problem: The first step involves identifying the ethical issue that needs to be addressed.
  • Gathering information: This includes facts, data, and other relevant information that can help in understanding the problem better.
    E.g.: Seeking advice from ethics committees, legal experts, or professional associations can be valuable in complex situations.
  • Identifying stakeholders: This includes individuals, groups, and organizations that are affected by the issue.
  • Analysing options: This involves evaluating the pros and cons of each option to arrive at the most appropriate course of action.
  • Choosing a course of action: This decision should be based on the analysis of the available options and should consider the interests of all stakeholders.
    E.g.: A public administrator must assess whether the proposed resource allocation aligns with principles of equity and fairness and complies with relevant laws.
  • Implementing the decision: This involves communicating the decision to all stakeholders and taking the necessary steps to ensure that the decision is implemented effectively.
  • Monitoring and evaluating: This involves reviewing the decision periodically to ensure that it is still relevant and effective, and making any necessary changes to ensure that the decision is still appropriate.
    E.g.: Regularly assess whether the intended outcomes are being achieved, and be prepared to make adjustments if unforeseen ethical dilemmas or challenges arise.
Civil servants are responsible for providing justice to many lives. Dilemmas arise many times in life of civil servants while performing their duties. What required is the objective decision making for larger public benefit.

6. What do each of the following quotations mean to you in the present context?

(a) “The true rule, in determining to embrace, or reject anything, is not whether it has any evil in it; but whether it has more evil than good. There are few things wholly evil or wholly good. Almost everything, especially of governmental policy, is an inseparable compound of the two; so that our best judgement of the preponderance between them is continually demanded. ”Abraham Lincoln (150 words)

Abraham Lincoln's quote highlights the complexity of decision-making, particularly in matters of public policy. He argues that it is not enough to simply judge whether something is good or bad, as most actions or policies have both positive and negative aspects. Therefore, it is important to assess whether the benefits of a particular policy outweigh its costs or drawbacks.
Determining balance between good and evil:
  • Comprehensive Evaluation: Evaluate the overall impact: Consider the consequences and outcomes of embracing or rejecting something, taking into account both positive and negative aspects.
    E.g.: Assessing the economic, social, and environmental effects of a proposed infrastructure project before deciding whether to proceed.
  • Complexity of Governmental Policy: Government decisions may have intended positive effects but also unintended negative consequences and analyse them.
    E.g.: Implementing a tax policy to stimulate economic growth, which may benefit businesses but also widen income inequality.
  • Balancing Considerations: Examine the relative importance and magnitude of positive and negative aspects to determine the overall preponderance.
    E.g.: Deciding on the appropriate balance between economic development and environmental preservation.
  • Ethical Decision-Making: Apply ethical principles: Consider ethical frameworks such as utilitarianism (maximizing overall well-being), deontology (upholding moral duties), or virtue ethics (promoting virtuous qualities).
    E.g.: Balancing individual privacy rights with national security concerns when developing surveillance policies.
  • Pragmatic Approach: Recognize that finding the perfect solution without any negative consequences may be challenging, but strive to minimize harm and maximize benefits.
    E.g.: Crafting public health policies that balance individual freedoms with measures to protect public safety during a pandemic.
Lincoln's quote emphasizes the importance of informed decision-making and the need for a continual evaluation of the preponderance between the positive and negative consequences of governmental policies.
6.(b) “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding. “ _ Mahatma Gandhi (150 words)
Anger and intolerance are negative emotions developed in response to an adverse provocation, or any threat. As Gandhiji said, Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding; one must control anger and must be tolerant.
How anger affect understanding?
  • Impaired Rationality: Anger can cloud judgment and impair rational thinking, leading to impulsive reactions and biased perspectives.
    E.g.: Anger hinders listening and considering other perspectives, hindering understanding.
  • Inhibited Empathy: Anger can inhibit empathy, preventing individuals from genuinely understanding and considering the emotions and experiences of others.
    E.g.: It prevents empathetic thinking
  • Emotional decisions: Anger leads to an influenced, non-objective and emotional decision, which is not based on well thought outcomes which could be dangerous.
    E.g.: In anger, mobs may lynch an innocent without knowing or verifying his crime.
How intolerance affects understanding?
  • Lack of Empathy and Compassion: Intolerance leads to lack of understanding and consideration can hinder the ability to comprehend the experiences, challenges, and perspectives of others.
    E.g.: Intolerance towards individuals of a different sexual orientation can prevent someone from limiting the opportunity.
  • Divisiveness and Stereotyping: Instead of seeking to understand the complexities of individuals or groups, intolerant individuals generalize based on limited or biased information.
    E.g.: Intolerance towards immigrants can result in broad generalizations and fostering discrimination.
  • Cloud thinking: Intolerance makes a person blind to other opinions and narrow down a person’s thinking and judgement marred by biased views.
Way forward:
  • Emotional intelligence: It is very necessary for a person in a position of authority and responsible for decision making to keep their negative emotions in check. It requires development of emotional intelligence.
  • Sensitivity training: To manage emotions sensitivity training can be given to the individuals.
  • Interaction: Encouraging sarva dharma sambhava by making people of diverse cultures to interact with each other.
  • Meditation: Yoga and meditation techniques to control anger is a must in a way it gives one control over one’s own mind.
By recognizing the negative impact of anger and intolerance on correct understanding, individuals can strive to cultivate open-mindedness, empathy, and tolerance.

6. (c) “Falsehood takes the place of truth when it results in unblemished common good.” _ Tirukkural (150 words)

The quotation by Tirukkural highlights the ethical dilemma of choosing between truth and the greater good. In the present context, we are faced with situations where the truth may cause harm or jeopardize the well-being of the community.
Falsehood taking place of truth resulting unblemished common good:
The importance of truth
  • Truth is an essential element of ethical decision-making, as it enables individuals to make informed decisions based on accurate information.
  • Truth also promotes trust, accountability, and transparency in public and private institutions.
The ethics of falsehood
  • Protective Deception: In wartime, military personnel may use strategic deception tactics to mislead the enemy and protect their troops to ensuring the safety and security of one's own forces.
  • Alleviating Panic: In emergency situations, authorities may issue calming statements or withhold certain information temporarily to prevent widespread panic.
The dangers of falsehood
  • Falsehood can undermine trust, accountability, and transparency, leading to a breakdown in social and political institutions.
  • It can also have unintended consequences that can be harmful to individuals and society as a whole.
The need for ethical decision-making:
Ethical decision-making requires consideration of the values and principles that guide decision-making, as well as the potential consequences of any decision.
While it suggests that falsehood may be permissible under certain circumstances, the overall message underscores the significance of considering the common good and evaluating the consequences when navigating complex moral dilemmas.


7. Rakesh is a responsible district-level officer, who enjoys the trust of his higher officials. Knowing his honesty, the government entrusted him with the responsibility of identifying the beneficiaries under a health care scheme meant for senior citizens.
The criteria to be a beneficiary are the following:
  • 60 years of age or above.
  • Belonging to a reserved community.
  • Family income of less than 1 Lakh rupees per annum.
  • Post-treatment prognosis is likely to be high to make a positive difference to the quality of life of the beneficiary.
One day, an old couple visited Rakesh’s office with their application. They have been the residents of a village in his district since their birth. The old man is diagnosed with a rare condition that causes obstruction in the large intestine. As a consequence, he has severe abdominal pain frequently that prevents him from doing any physical labour. The couple has no children to support them. The expert surgeon whom they contacted is willing to do the surgery without charging any fee. However, the couple will have to bear the cost of incidental charges, such as medicines, hospitalization, etc., to the tune of rupees one lakh. The couple fulfils all the criteria except criterion ‘b’. However, any financial aid would certainly make a significant difference in their quality of life.
How should Rakesh respond to the situation? (250 words)
In this case study, Rakesh, a district-level officer, is responsible for identifying beneficiaries under a health care scheme for senior citizens. Rakesh is in a dilemma as the couple fulfils all the criteria except criterion ‘b’.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Ethical dilemmas involved:
  • Being Benevolent vs Being Objective
  • Empathy vs Accountability
  • Compassion vs Transparency
  • Conscience vs Procedural intactness
Rakesh can explore whether there are any provisions within the healthcare scheme that allow for exceptions or special consideration based on individual circumstances. He can also bring this case to the attention of his higher officials and seek their guidance in such exceptional cases where a deserving candidate is found to be ineligible only for one criterion. This will ensure transparency and fairness in decision-making.
However, Rakesh must follow the criteria laid down by the government for identifying beneficiaries under the health care scheme meant for senior citizens. If Rakesh bypasses criterion ‘b’, it would be a violation of the scheme guidelines, and other eligible candidates belonging to reserved communities may be deprived of the benefit.
By following the above-stated course of action, it can be ensured that
  • Rakesh is being objective in his decision-making and is not being favourable to the people with whom he has personal connections.
  • He is duty-bound and is duly following the government procedure as established by the rules.
  • He has explored the option with his seniors which can serve his conscience of making the right decision.
However, Rakesh can explore other options available to the old couple.
  • He can try to find alternative sources of funding for the couple's incidental charges.
    E.g.: Crowdfunding through online platforms.
  • He can also provide them with information about other government schemes or programmes that they may be eligible for.
    E.g.: He can make them aware of platforms like ‘myscheme’.
  • Additionally, Rakesh can talk to the expert surgeon to see if any concessions can be made for the incidental charges.
Moreover, Rakesh can try to raise awareness among government officials and society at large about the importance of considering individual circumstances and not just blindly following the eligibility criteria. This can help in the creation of more flexible and inclusive policies that cater to the needs of those who are in dire need of assistance but fall short of one or two criteria.
By approaching the situation with empathy, seeking guidance, and exploring all possible avenues of assistance, Rakesh can make an informed decision that prioritizes the well-being of the elderly couple while adhering to the established criteria as much as possible.
8. As a senior officer in the Ministry, you have access to important policy decisions and upcoming big announcements such as road construction projects before they are notified in the public domain. The Ministry is about to announce a mega road project for which the drawings are already in place. Sufficient care was taken by the planners to make use of the government land with the minimum land acquisition from private parties. Compensation rate for private parties was also finalized as per government rules. Care was also taken to minimize deforestation. Once the project is announced, it is expected that there will be a huge spurt in real estate prices in and around that area.
Meanwhile, the Minister concerned insists that you realign the road in such a way that it comes closer to his 20 acres farmhouse. He also suggests that he would facilitate the purchase of a big plot of land in your wife’s name at the prevailing rate which is very nominal, in and around the proposed mega road project. He also tries to convince you by saying that there is no harm in it as he is buying the land legally. He even promises to supplement your savings in case you do not have sufficient funds to buy the land. However, by the act of realignment, a lot of agricultural lands has to be acquired, thereby causing a considerable financial burden on the government, and also the displacement of the farmers. As if this is not enough, it will involve cutting down of a large number of trees denuding the area of its green cover.
Faced with this situation, what will you do? Critically examine various conflicts of interest and explain what your responsibilities are as a public servant. (250 words)
The case study is about an upcoming mega road project that presents a complex ethical dilemma for a senior officer in the Ministry. Balancing personal gain, environmental conservation, fair compensation, and public interest raises significant conflicts, highlighting the crucial responsibilities and challenges faced by public servants in navigating such situations with integrity and transparency.
As a public servant, my primary responsibility is to serve the public interest and act with integrity, impartiality, and honesty. In this situation, I am faced with various conflicts of interest that need to be critically examined before taking any action.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Conflict of interest involved
  • Personal gain conflict: The Minister's insistence on realigning the road to benefit his personal property, as well as facilitating the purchase of land in the name of the officer's wife, demonstrates a conflict of interest driven by personal financial gain.
  • Public interest conflict: The proposed road project was designed to minimize land acquisition from private parties, compensation costs, and deforestation, thereby serving the public interest. However, the Minister's request for realignment directly conflicts with the original project's objectives.
  • Abuse of power conflict: The Minister, by leveraging his position and authority, is attempting to influence the officer to act in a manner that benefits his personal interests.
  • Impartiality conflict: Granting special favours to the Minister, would create an unfair advantage and favouritism, undermining the principles of impartiality and fairness that public servants are expected to uphold.
My responsibilities
  • Upholding the public interest: The proposed road project was designed to minimize land acquisition from private parties and deforestation while maximizing the use of government land. Therefore, any changes made solely for personal gain would not align with the public interest.
  • Avoiding corruption and undue influence: Public officials should never use their positions for personal gain or engage in activities that undermine the principles of fairness, equality, and meritocracy.
  • Environmental sustainability: Altering the road alignment to accommodate personal interests would compromise the project's environmental goals and set a negative precedent for future infrastructure development.
  • Economic considerations: As a public servant, I have a duty to ensure responsible and efficient use of public funds. Any unnecessary expenses resulting from personal interests would be detrimental to the public interest.
  • Serving the public with impartiality: Granting special favours to the Minister would create an unfair advantage and undermine the trust of other citizens in the government's decision-making processes.
My course of action:
  • Uphold Integrity: Refuse the Minister's request for realignment and land acquisition that primarily serves personal interests, emphasizing your commitment to the public interest, fairness, and ethical conduct.
  • Report Misconduct: If the Minister persists in pressuring you to comply with their request or attempts to influence your decision through inappropriate means, report the misconduct to higher authorities, such as an independent ethics committee or ombudsman.
  • Seek Legal Advice: Consult with legal advisors or senior officials within the Ministry to understand the legality and potential consequences of the Minister's actions. This will help you gather support and protect yourself from any undue influence or reprisals.
  • Document Everything: Maintain a detailed record of all communications, requests, and actions related to this matter. This documentation can serve as evidence if an investigation or inquiry is initiated in the future.
  • Advocate for Public Interest: Engage in discussions within the Ministry and with relevant stakeholders to emphasize the importance of prioritizing the public interest, fair compensation for affected parties, and environmental sustainability. Propose alternative solutions that minimize adverse impacts while achieving the project's objectives.
  • Seek guidance and protection: I would consult with colleagues, mentors, or ethics advisors within the Ministry to seek guidance on how to handle the situation appropriately. Whistle-blower protection mechanisms, if available, should also be utilized to safeguard against any potential retaliation or victimization.
By following the stated course of action and adhering to the responsibilities as a public servant, promoting ethical behaviour, and prioritizing the public interest, one can help maintain the integrity and credibility of the Ministry while ensuring the welfare of the citizens and the sustainable development of the project.
9. It is a State where prohibition is in force. You are recently appointed as the Superintendent of Police of a district notorious for illicit distillation of liquor. The illicit liquor leads to many death, reported and unreported, and causes a major problem for the district authorities.
The approach till now had been to view it as a law and order problem and tackle it accordingly. Raids, arrest, police cases, and criminal trials – all these had only limited impact. The problem remains as serious as ever.
Your inspections show that the parts of the district where the distillation flourishes are economically, industrially and educationally backward. Agriculture is badly affected by poor irrigation facilities. Frequent clashes among communities gave boost to illicit distillation. No major initiatives had taken place in the past either from the government’s side or from social organizations to improve the lot of the people.
Which new approach will you adopt to bring the problem under control? (250 words)
The case study about the illicit distillation and the limitations of law and order action, is a classic example of the limitations of the use of force and the lack of proper analysis of an issue. These scenarios require proper social persuasion tactics, nudging and a relevant socio-economic understanding of the situation.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

As the Superintendent of Police of a district notorious for the illicit distillation of liquor, I would adopt a multi-faceted approach to address the problem. The approach would involve a combination of law enforcement measures, social initiatives, and economic development strategies.
  • Firstly, I would intensify the enforcement efforts against illicit distillation by improving the intelligence gathering system, conducting targeted raids, and strengthening the prosecution process. I would also focus on seizing the assets of the illicit distillers and using the proceeds to fund development projects in the affected areas.
  • Secondly, I would initiate social programs aimed at creating awareness about the harmful effects of illicit liquor consumption. Community-based initiatives, such as self-help groups and youth clubs, would be formed to provide counselling and support to individuals affected by alcoholism.
  • Thirdly, I would work with the local government and other stakeholders to address the underlying socio-economic issues that drive the illicit distillation. This would involve improving access to education, healthcare, and basic amenities such as water and sanitation. The government could also explore options for developing alternative livelihoods, such as promoting eco-tourism and agro-based industries.
  • Promoting Gandhian values right from the school and passing on these values to the household can be helpful in promoting teetotalism in our society.
  • Implement rehabilitation programs for individuals involved in illicit distillation, providing them with opportunities for skill development, counselling, and reintegration into society.
Additionally, I would encourage the formation of community-based organizations and local self-governance institutions to empower the people to take charge of their own development. This would help in creating a sense of ownership and responsibility towards the community and its development.
Overall, my approach would be to adopt a holistic and integrated approach to tackle the problem of illicit distillation. It would not only address the law-and-order aspect but also focus on social and economic development, thereby creating a sustainable solution to the problem.
10. A big corporate house is engaged in manufacturing industrial chemicals on a large scale. It proposes to set upon the additional unit. Many states rejected its proposal due to the detrimental effect on the environment. But one state government acceded to the request and permitted the unit close to a city, brushing aside all opposition.
The unit was set up 10 years ago and was in full swing till recently. The pollution caused by the industrial effluents was affecting the land, water and crops in the area. It was also causing serious health problems to human beings and animals. This gave rise to a series of agitation thousands of people took part, creating a law and order problem necessitating stern police action. Following the public outcry, the State government ordered the closure of the factory.
The closure of the factory resulted in the unemployment of not only those workers who were engaged in the factory but also those who were working in the ancillary units. It also very badly affected those industries which depended on the chemicals manufactured by it.
As a senior officer entrusted with the responsibility of handling this issue, how are you going to address it? (250 words)
The case study is about the domino effects that are possible due to one single decision. Here the initial permission to the manufacturing outlet should have been scrutinised and the sudden closure of the outlet should have been carried out after considering the various consequences.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

As a senior officer entrusted with the responsibility of handling the issue of the closure of the industrial chemical unit, my first priority would be to ensure that the negative impacts of the pollution caused by the unit are addressed and the affected land, water, crops, and human beings and animals are restored to health.
  • This could start by conducting a comprehensive assessment of the environmental damage caused by the factory's operations.
  • Then involve environmental agencies to create a plan for remediation and rehabilitation of the affected area.
  • I would also work with the state government to ensure that those who have suffered as a result of the pollution are compensated for their losses.
  • In addition, I would work with the corporate house to explore alternative options for industrial development that are more environmentally sustainable and do not have such negative impacts on the community.
  • This could involve investing in new technologies, exploring alternative production methods or relocating the unit to a more suitable location. The focus should be on developing industries that are both profitable and socially responsible.
To deal with the public health crisis that was initiated by the polluting activities, I would
  • Establish medical camps and healthcare facilities to provide immediate assistance and treatment to those affected by health problems caused by the pollution.
  • Collaborate with healthcare professionals and organizations to conduct health screenings, awareness campaigns, and long-term monitoring of the affected population.
  • Advocate for the implementation of stricter regulations and monitoring systems to prevent similar health hazards in the future.
Regarding the issue of unemployment, my approach would be to
  • work with the local government and other stakeholders to create new employment opportunities for the workers who lost their jobs as a result of the closure of the unit.
  • This could involve creating new training programs to help them acquire skills needed for other industries.
  • Collaborate with local and regional industries to create job opportunities and promote entrepreneurship in the affected area.
To support the ancillary industries, I would try to
  • Assess the impact on ancillary industries that relied on the chemicals manufactured by the factory.
  • Provide financial and technical support to affected businesses to diversify their product range or explore new markets.
  • Facilitate networking and collaboration among affected industries to encourage joint ventures and business partnerships.
Overall, my approach would be to address the immediate impacts of the pollution caused by the industrial chemical unit, while also working towards a long-term solution that promotes sustainable development and job creation in the affected area.
The closure of the chemical factory due to environmental and health concerns emphasizes the significance of rigorous scrutiny before allowing such industries to operate. Balancing industrial growth with sustainable practices and responsible decision-making is essential to avoid detrimental effects on communities and prevent abrupt closures that result in unemployment and economic hardships. By prioritizing proper scrutiny and analyzing the consequences, governments can foster sustainable development while safeguarding the well-being of both people and the environment.
11. Dr X is a leading medical practitioner in a city. He has set up a charitable trust through which he plans to establish a super-speciality hospital in the city to cater to the medical needs of all sections of the society. Incidentally, that part of the State had been neglected over the years. The proposed hospital would be a boon for the region.
You are heading the tax investigation agency of that region. During an inspection of the doctor’s clinic, your officers have found out some major irregularities. A few of them are substantial which had resulted in considerable withholding of tax that should be paid by him now. The doctor is cooperative. He undertakes to pay the tax immediately.
However, there are certain other deficiencies in his tax compliance which are purely technical in nature. If these technical defaults are pursued by the agency, considerable time and energy of the doctor will be diverted to issues which are not so serious, urgent or even helpful to the tax collection process. Further, in all probability, it will hamper the prospects of the hospital coming up.
There are two options before you:
1) Taking a broader view, ensure substantial tax compliance and ignore defaults that are merely technical in nature.
2) Pursue the matter strictly and proceed on all fronts, whether substantial or merely technical.
As the head of the tax agency, which course of action will you opt and why? (250 words)
As the head of the tax investigation agency, it is my responsibility to ensure that tax compliance is adhered to by all taxpayers. In the given scenario, while some major irregularities have been found during the inspection of Dr X's clinic, there are also certain technical defaults that are not so serious or urgent. Pursuing the matter strictly and proceeding on all fronts, whether substantial or merely technical, may hamper the prospects of the hospital coming up. On the other hand, taking a broader view and ensuring substantial tax compliance while ignoring the technical defaults may seem like giving a free pass to the taxpayer.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

In this situation, I would opt for the first course of action, that is, taking a broader view and ensuring substantial tax compliance while ignoring the technical defaults.
  • Consider the Greater Benefit: Evaluate the broader societal impact of establishing a super-speciality hospital in the neglected region. Recognize the potential benefits it will bring, including improved healthcare access and development opportunities. This perspective emphasizes the greater public interest over strictly pursuing technical tax defaults.
  • Efficient Resource Allocation: Acknowledge that pursuing technical defaults will divert significant time, energy, and resources of both the tax agency and the doctor. Consider the opportunity cost of focusing on these minor issues instead of effectively collecting substantial tax dues.
  • Encouraging Voluntary Compliance: Appreciate the doctor's cooperation and willingness to rectify the substantial tax irregularities promptly. Prioritize fostering a positive compliance culture and encouraging voluntary tax payments to ensure fairness in the tax system.
  • Supporting Economic Development: Recognize that the successful establishment of the super-speciality hospital will have a positive economic impact, generating employment opportunities, attracting investments, and improving the region's overall development. Focusing on technical defaults may hamper these prospects.
  • Balanced Approach: Strike a balance by addressing the substantial tax irregularities through appropriate legal measures while minimizing the burden of unnecessary technical compliance. This approach ensures compliance without unduly hindering the doctor's efforts to establish the hospital.
  However, it is important to note that the technical defaults should not be ignored completely, and the doctor should be advised to rectify them for future compliance. He must be made aware of the need to be in compliance with all technical procedures. He should also be advised to consult a tax practitioner in filing his returns properly.
This approach would ensure that tax compliance is adhered to, while also ensuring that the hospital comes up, which would be a boon for the region. It would also send a positive message to taxpayers that the tax agency is willing to take a broader view and work towards a common goal of development while ensuring substantial tax compliance. This would also be in line with the Central government’s vision of Transparent taxation— Honoring the honest.

12. Edward Snowden, a computer expert and former CIA administrator, released confidential Government documents to the press about the existence of Government surveillance programmes. According to many legal experts and the US Government, his action violated the Espionage act of 1971, which identified the leak of State secret as an act of treason. Yet, despite the fact that he broke the law, Snowden argued that he had a moral obligation to act. He gave a justification for his “whistle blowing” by stating that he had a duty “to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them.”
According to Snowden, the Government’s violation of privacy had to be exposed regardless of legality since more substantive issues of social action and public morality were involved here. Many agreed with Snowden. Few argued that he broke the law and compromised national security, for which he should be held accountable.
Do you agree that Snowden’s actions were ethically justified even if legally prohibited? Why or why not? Make an argument by weighing the competing values in this case (250 words )

The case of Edward Snowden is a complex one that involves weighing competing values such as national security and individual privacy.
Arguments in favour of Snowden's actions being ethically justified
  • Whistleblower Duty: Snowden believed he had a moral obligation to inform the public about the extent of government surveillance programs and the violation of privacy rights. Whistle blowing is often seen as an act of conscience to expose wrongdoing and protect the public interest.
  • Government Transparency: Snowden's actions shed light on the scope and implications of government surveillance, sparking a global debate on privacy and civil liberties. Transparency and accountability are fundamental principles in a democratic society.
  • Public Interest: By revealing the existence of government surveillance programs, Snowden aimed to protect the public's right to privacy and prompt a discussion on the balance between security and civil liberties. This can be seen as acting in the best interest of the general public.
Arguments against Snowden's actions being ethically justified
  • Violation of the Law: Snowden knowingly leaked classified information, which is considered a violation of the Espionage Act and a breach of his contractual obligations. Breaking the law undermines the rule of law and can have serious consequences for national security.
  • National Security: Critics argue that Snowden's actions compromised national security by revealing sensitive intelligence operations and methods. Protecting national security is crucial to safeguarding citizens and maintaining stability in the face of potential threats.
  • Legal Channels: Some argue that Snowden should have pursued legal channels to address his concerns, such as reporting to appropriate authorities or utilizing internal mechanisms within the intelligence community. Acting outside the legal framework undermines the established processes for addressing grievances.
In weighing these competing values, it is essential to consider the context, motivations, and consequences of Snowden's actions. While there may be sympathy for his intentions to protect privacy rights and promote government transparency, the legality of his actions and potential national security implications cannot be ignored.
The ethical justification ultimately depends on one's perspective, values, and the weight given to individual conscience versus the rule of law and national security.
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