Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude



1. Conflict of interest in the public sector arises when
  • Official duties
  • Public interest, and
  • Personal interest are taking priority one above the other.
How can this conflict in administration be resolved? Describe with an example (150 words)
A conflict of interest occurs when an individual’s personal interests – family, friendships, financial, or social factors – could compromise his or her judgment, decisions, or actions in the workplace.
Conflict of interest in the public sector due to conflict between  personal interests official duties and responsibilities or the public interest.
  • Personal interest over public interest
    E.g.: Chandra Kochar case
  • Official duty over public interest
    E.g.: demolition of illegal construction in Delhi causing loss of livelihood for people
  • Personal interest over official duty
    E.g.: Attending family function during working hour after marking attendance
Ways to resolve conflict of interest in administration
  • Government agencies can establish codes of conduct and ethics
    E.g.: All India Services (Conduct) Rules, 1968, require officials to disclose potential conflicts, and establish independent oversight mechanisms like Central Vigilance Commission (CVC).
  • Officials can also recuse themselves from decision-making processes when a conflict of interest arises.
  • Training and Education
    E.g.: The Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) in India conducts training programs that include sessions on ethics, integrity, and conflict of interest for civil servants.
  • Role models: making important leaders as role models.
    E.g.: M Visveswaraya using separate candles in office for his personal use
These measures would ensure that the decision-making process is free from bias and corruption and that the public interest is protected.
2. Examine the relevance of the following in the context of civil service: (150 words)
(a) Transparency
(b) Accountability
(c) Fairness and justice
(d) Courage of conviction
(e) Spirit of services
Transparency, accountability, fairness and justice, courage of conviction, and spirit of service are all highly relevant in the context of civil service.
a) Transparency: take decisions in open manner.
  • Relevance: is important in ensuring that the actions of public officials are open and accountable to the public.
  • It helps to build trust in government and ensure that decisions are made fairly and objectively.
    E.g.: RTI act ensuring good governance
b) Accountability: being answerable to action taken
  • Relevance: It is crucial in ensuring that public officials are held responsible for their actions and decisions.
  • It helps to deter corruption and unethical behaviour and encourages officials to act in the public interest.
  • Reducing conflict of interest
    E.g.: Lal Bahdur Shastri resigned after train accident
c) Fairness and justice: Fairness and justice are fundamental values that underpin the rule of law and democratic governance.
  • Relevance: Civil servants must act impartially and without favouritism, ensuring that decisions are based on merit.
  • Ensuring equality and rule of law in governance
    E.g.: Armstrong Pame making roads in rural areas
d) Courage of conviction
  • Relevance: Courage of conviction is necessary for civil servants to uphold their duties and responsibilities in the face of opposition or pressure.
  • They must be willing to stand up for what is right, even when it is difficult or unpopular.
    E.g.: T N Sheshan as Election commissioner
e) Spirit of services: is a fundamental value that guides civil servants in their work.
  • Relevance: They must be committed to serving the public interest and improving the lives of citizens
  • Empathy and compassion in action
    E.g.:compassionate Kozhikode’ programme of Prashant Nair IAS
3. Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward. (150 words)
Indian politics is perceived to be dynastic and ridden with corruption and favouritism. Reasons such as lack of steady source of income to young people, huge amounts of money and years of struggle are needed to succeed in politics, Political leaders often invoke caste, religion, regionalism etc to divide people and garner votes led to reduction of youth in Politics.
Steps to motivate young people to politics:
  • Universities may provide practical courses on politics at graduation and PG levels.
  • Youth Parliament and its awareness to be increased.
  • Healthy campus politics based on mutual respect to be promoted.
  • Creating good role models in politics.
  • Reservation of seats for youth in each election.
  • Curbing use of black money and corruption during elections.
  • Inner party democracy and stopping dynastic politics.
  • Emotional motivation through invoking patriotism and service mentality.
Thus, with such measures the vibrant youth of India may be motivated to serve the nation in political arena which could strengthen world’s largest democracy.
4. (a) One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real-life example. (150 words)
Integrity can be defined as the consistent adherence to moral and ethical principles and the ability to make the right choices even in the face of pressure or temptation.
Integrity is complete refusal to be compromised
  • Malala Yousafzai, a young Pakistani activist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate: Malala gained international attention after she was shot by the Taliban for speaking out against the ban on girls' education in Pakistan. Despite this attack, she continued to speak out for girls' education and human rights, and refused to be silenced or compromised in her beliefs.
  • T N Seshan without inclined to political pressure
  • Gandhiji withdrawing NCM after Chauri Chaura incident
  • Ashok Khemka IAS stood against corruption even after multiple transfers
Commitment of these personalities to their beliefs and their willingness to stand up for what is right has inspired people around the world and made a lasting impact on the global conversation.
4. (b) Corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable. Analyse. (150 words)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) refers to the idea that businesses have a responsibility to act in the best interests of society and the environment, as well as their shareholders.
Corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable
  • CSR can help companies to build a positive reputation and brand image, which can attract customers, investors, and talented employees. By demonstrating a commitment to social and environmental issues, companies can differentiate themselves from competitors and build trust with stakeholders.
    E.g.: TATA group in India
  • CSR can help companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency. By implementing sustainable practices, such as reducing waste and energy use, companies can save money and improve their bottom line.
    E.g.: Oxygen plant in hospital by Daburgroup
  • CSR can help to mitigate risk and promote long-term sustainability. By addressing social and environmental issues, companies can reduce the likelihood of negative impacts on their operations and ensure their long-term viability.
    E.g.: Infosys making infrastructure in Hospitals, schools etc
Thus, by acting in the best interests of society and the environment, companies can also create value for their shareholders and ensure their long-term success.
5. (a) “Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it may perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles with direct them.”-Napoleon Bonaparte. Stating examples mention the rulers
(i) who have harmed society and country,
(ii) who worked for the development of society and country. (150 words)
Napoleon Bonaparte's quote highlights the power of ambition and how it can be directed towards either positive or negative outcomes.

(i) Rulers who have harmed society and country
  • Adolf Hitler: The Nazi leader's ambition for power and domination led to the genocide of millions of Jews and other minority groups during the Holocaust.
  • Idi Amin: The Ugandan dictator's ambition for absolute power and control led to widespread human rights abuses, including mass killings, torture, and displacement of thousands of people.
(ii) Rulers who worked for the development of society and country
  • Nelson Mandela: The South African leader's ambition for racial equality and justice led to the dismantling of apartheid and the promotion of human rights and democracy.
  • Lee Kuan Yew: The former Prime Minister of Singapore's ambition for economic development and prosperity led to the transformation of the country from a third world nation to a modern, developed state.
These examples demonstrate how ambition, when directed by principles such as justice, equality, and development, can lead to positive outcomes for society and the country. However, when it is directed by principles such as power and control, it can lead to negative outcomes and harm to society and the country.
5. (b) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – A.P.J Abdul Kalam. Analyse. (150 words)
A.P.J Abdul Kalam's quote highlights the importance of family and education in creating a corruption-free and intellectually vibrant society.
Role of Parents creating a corruption-free society
  • They can set a positive example for their children by living an honest and ethical life, and by instilling the values of integrity, hard work, and respect for others.
  • Promote social and political awareness, and in educating their children on the importance of citizenship and civic engagement.
  • Provide a nurturing and supportive environment for their children, and instil in them the values of empathy, kindness, and compassion.
    E.g.: Mahatma Gandhi's father, Karamchand Gandhi, was a man of strong principles and values. He taught Gandhi the importance of truth, simplicity, and self-discipline. These values shaped Gandhi's worldview and guided his actions throughout his life.
Role of Teachers creating a corruption-free society
  • Inspire and motivate students to pursue knowledge and intellectual growth, and to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  • Promoting ethical values and civic engagement, and in fostering a sense of social responsibility and community engagement among students.
    E.g.: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam was deeply influenced by his teacher, SivasubramaniaIyer. Iyer was a strict disciplinarian and instilled in Kalam a strong work ethic and a love for science and technology.
By instilling the values of honesty, integrity, and social responsibility in children, fathers, mothers, and teachers can contribute to building a better and more vibrant society.
6. How will you apply emotional intelligence in administrative practices? (150 words)
Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to recognize and manage one's own emotions, as well as the emotions of others.
Ways in which EI can be applied in administrative practices
  • Building strong relationships: By being attuned to the emotions and needs of others, they can create an atmosphere of trust and collaboration and build strong and meaningful relationships with colleagues, subordinates, and stakeholders.
  • Conflict resolution: Administrators who possess high EI can navigate conflicts and resolve disputes effectively. By understanding the underlying emotions and motivations of conflicting parties, they can find common ground and develop mutually beneficial solutions.
  • Leadership: Administrators who possess high EI can inspire and motivate others through effective communication and interpersonal skills. By being attuned to the emotions and needs of their team, they can create a positive and supportive work environment.
  • Decision making: Administrators who possess high EI can make informed and balanced decisions by considering the emotional impact of their actions on others. By being aware of their own biases and emotions, they can make decisions that are fair and equitable.
Applying emotional intelligence in administrative practices can lead to better relationships, conflict resolution, leadership, and decision-making. By being attuned to the emotions of themselves and others, administrators can create a more positive and productive work environment.

6. (b) Strength, peace and security are considered to be the pillars of international relations. Elucidate. (150 words)

Strength, peace, and security are considered to be the three pillars of international relations, and each of them is essential for the stability and well-being of the global community.
Strength as a pillar of international relations
  • It refers to the economic, military, and political power of a nation, and is essential for protecting national interests and promoting global stability.
  • A strong and prosperous nation can play a leading role in shaping the international agenda, and can use its influence to promote peace and security around the world. E.g.: The United States is considered a superpower due to its military strength and economic dominance, allowing it to project its influence globally
Peace as a pillar of international relations
  • It is essential for fostering cooperation, trust, and mutual understanding between nations.
  • It involves the absence of conflict and the promotion of diplomacy, dialogue, and reconciliation.
  • A peaceful international environment is necessary for economic growth, social development, and the protection of human rights.
    E.g.: the peace process between Israel and Palestine, led by the United Nations, aims to resolve the long-standing conflict between the two nations and establish a lasting peace.
Security as a pillar of international relations
  • It involves the protection of nations and individuals from threats such as terrorism, cyberattacks, and military aggression.
  • It is essential for ensuring the safety and well-being of people around the world, and for creating a stable and predictable international environment.
    E.g.: The United Nations Peacekeeping Forces work to maintain peace and security in conflict zones, such as in South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Strength, peace, and security are three interrelated pillars of international relations that are essential for promoting global stability, prosperity, and well-being. Without these pillars, the international system would be vulnerable to instability, conflict, and chaos.
7. (a) The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life. Discuss. (150 words)
The crisis of ethical values in modern times can be attributed to various factors, one of which is a narrow perception of the good life. In modern societies, there is often a strong emphasis on material wealth, social status, and personal achievement, which can lead individuals to prioritize their own self-interest over ethical considerations.
Crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life
  • Self-interest: lead to a culture of consumerism and individualism, where people are encouraged to pursue their own desires and interests without regard for the broader social and ethical implications of their actions.
  • Material wealth and status: more need of wealth leads to unethical practices suchas corruption, Nepotism etc
    E.g.: coal scam
  • Lack of social and environmental responsibility: leading to discrimination and encroachment to nature. E.g.: Mining led migration and associated environmental consequences
Way ahead
  • In order to address the crisis of ethical values, it is necessary to broaden our understanding of the good life and to emphasize the importance of social and ethical considerations in our decision-making.
  • Our actions must involve a greater emphasis on community, cooperation, and social responsibility, as well as a recognition of the inherent value and dignity of all individuals and the natural world.
  • Applied ethics as part of curriculum
Overall, a narrow perception of the good life can contribute to the crisis of ethical values in modern times, and it is important to promote a more inclusive and ethical vision of the good life in order to foster greater social responsibility, empathy, and concern for the well-being of others.
7. (b) Increased national wealth did not result in equitable distribution of its benefits. It has created only some “enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority.” Justify. (150 words)
According to Oxfam report The top 10% of the Indian population holds 77% of the total national wealth. 73% of the wealth generated in 2017 went to the richest 1%, while 670 million Indians who comprise the poorest half of the population saw only a 1% increase in their wealth.
Enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority
  • Economic inequality: A small group of wealthy individuals and corporations have benefited greatly from economic growth, while the majority of the population remains poor and vulnerable.
    E.g.: Slums around big cities
  • Regional disparities: Economic growth has been concentrated in urban areas, particularly in a few select states such as Maharashtra and Karnataka.
  • Lack of inclusive policies: Many of India's policies have not been designed with inclusivity in mind.
    E.g.: the focus on large-scale industrialization has led to the displacement of farmers and rural communities, and the benefits of policies such as tax cuts and subsidies have primarily gone to the wealthy.
  • Corruption: Poor ethical standards and crony capitalism, where business interests are favoured over the public good, has resulted in wealth being concentrated in the hands of a few individuals and corporations
Addressing this issue will require a multi-pronged approach that includes policies to promote inclusive growth, tackle corruption, and prioritize the well-being of all members of society, particularly those who have been historically marginalized.
8. (a) Discipline generally implies following the order and subordination. However, it may be counter-productive for the organization. Discuss. (150 words)
Discipline is the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behaviour, using punishment to correct disobedient. Discipline ensures smooth flow of life without putting hindrances to the individual’s liberty.
Discipline is an essential aspect of any organization as it helps to maintain order and structure, and ensures that employees adhere to established rules and procedures. However, excessive focus on discipline can sometimes lead to a culture of blind obedience and subordination, which can be counterproductive for the organization.
Excessive discipline may be counter-productive for the organization
  • Strict adherence to rules and procedures may stifle innovation and creativity, as employees may be hesitant to deviate from established norms and processes. This can limit the organization's adaptability in a dynamic environment.
  • Moreover, a rigid disciplinary culture can sometimes create a sense of fear and mistrust among employees, affecting their morale and productivity. This can lead to high turnover rates and difficulties in attracting and retaining talent.
    E.g.: Indian bureaucracy is notorious for its rigid hierarchy and adherence to rules and regulations often resulting in bureaucratic delays and inefficiencies, as officials focus more on following rules rather than finding creative solutions to problems.
Therefore, it is important for organizations to strike a balance between discipline and flexibility. This can involve a more collaborative and inclusive approach to management, and a focus on empowering employees to take ownership of their work and contribute to the organization's success.
8. (b) Without commonly shared and widely entrenched moral values and obligations, neither the law, nor democratic government, nor even the market economy will function properly. What do you understand by this statement? Explain with illustration in the contemporary times. (150 words)  
The statement suggests that a functioning society requires a commonly shared set of moral values and obligations that are widely entrenched within the population. Without these values, the law, democratic government, and market economy will not function properly.
Improper functioning of law in the absence of moral values and obligations
  • Corruption: When individuals within the legal system, such as law enforcement officers, judges, or public officials, lack moral values and integrity, corruption can flourish. Corruption undermines the rule of law, erodes public trust, and hampers the fair and impartial administration of justice.
  • Environmental Degradation: The absence of moral values and obligations can contribute to environmental problems. When laws prioritize short-term economic interests over long-term sustainability and ecological well-being, issues such as pollution, deforestation, and climate change can escalate.
Improper functioning of democratic government in the absence of moral values and obligations
  • Abuse of Power: In the absence of moral values, democratic governments may witness abuses of power by elected officials.
    E.g.: curtailing of press freedom
  • Corruption and Scandals: Lack of moral values and obligations can foster corruption within democratic governments.
    E.g.: coal scam
Improper functioning of market economy in the absence of moral values and obligations
  • Fraudulent Practices: Lack of moral values can lead to fraudulent practices within the market economy. This can include misrepresentation of products, deceptive advertising, manipulation of financial markets, insider trading, or Ponzi schemes
  • Wealth Inequality and Social Divisions: In the absence of moral values and obligations, market economies can exacerbate wealth inequality and social divisions.
    E.g.: Oxfam report
Thus, it is important for a society to have a set of commonly shared and widely entrenched moral values and obligations to ensure that its institutions function properly and the society can progress.


9 . You are an honest and responsible civil servant. You often observe the following:
(a) There is a general perception that adhering to ethical conduct one may face difficulties to oneself and cause problems for the family, whereas unfair practices may help to reach the career goals.
(b) When the number of people adopting unfair means is large, a small minority having a penchant towards ethical means makes no difference.
(c) Sticking to ethical means is detrimental to the larger developmental goals.
(d) While one may not involve oneself in large unethical practices, but giving and accepting small gifts makes the system more efficient. Examine the above statements with their merits and demerits. (250 words)
While some may argue that emphasizing ethics in civil servants can yield detrimental outcomes, it is crucial to recognize the significant importance of ethical behaviour in the public sector. Ethics serve as a guiding framework for civil servants, ensuring their actions are rooted in principles of transparency, fairness, and integrity.
(a) The perception that adhering to ethical conduct may cause difficulties for oneself and the family is often based on the fear of retaliation and retribution from those who engage in unfair practices. However, it is important to understand that compromising on ethical values can have long-term negative consequences on both personal and professional life. While unethical means may provide short-term benefits, they can damage the reputation and credibility of an individual in the long run, leading to loss of respect and trust from colleagues, superiors, and subordinates.
(b) While it is true that a small minority adhering to ethical means may not make a significant difference when the majority engages in unfair practices, it is important to understand that every individual's actions can influence others. By setting an example of ethical behaviour, one can inspire others to follow suit and create a positive impact on the organization and society.
(c) The notion that ethical means are detrimental to larger developmental goals is a flawed one. In fact, ethical conduct is essential for achieving sustainable and inclusive development in the long run. Unethical practices may provide short-term gains, but they can undermine the trust and cooperation necessary for sustained development.
(d) The acceptance of small gifts may seem harmless, but it can have a corrosive effect on the integrity of the civil service. Even small gifts can create a sense of obligation and compromise the objectivity and impartiality of decision-making. While small gifts may appear to make the system more efficient, they erode the trust of the public in the institution and create a culture of entitlement and favouritism.
In conclusion, adhering to ethical conduct is essential for personal and professional integrity, as well as the larger societal good. It is important to understand that short-term gains through unethical practices can have long-term negative consequences. Even small compromises can erode the integrity of the civil service and undermine public trust in the institution. Therefore, civil servants should adhere to ethical values and set an example for others to follow.
10. You are aspiring to become an IAS officer and you have cleared various stages and now you have been selected for the personal interview. On the day of the interview, on the way to the venue you saw an accident where a mother and child who happen to be your relatives were badly injured. They needed immediate help. What would you have done in such a situation? Justify your action. (250 words)
In a situation like this, there are two conflicting responsibilities that need to be considered – the duty towards family and my own career aspirations. As an honest aspirant, my ambitions and priorities are well crafted. However, at the same time, I cannot turn a blind eye to the plight of my injured relatives.
In this situation, my first priority would be to ensure that my relatives receive immediate medical attention. I would swiftly assess the severity of the accident and the condition of the injured mother and child. If their injuries are life-threatening and immediate medical attention is required, my priority would be to provide immediate assistance. This would involve stabilizing their condition, if possible, and promptly calling for emergency medical services.
Simultaneously, I would inform the authorities, such as the police or emergency services, about the accident, providing them with all necessary details. In this communication, I would also mention my upcoming interview and emphasize the urgency of the situation, requesting immediate help.
If there are other individuals present at the accident scene, I would delegate responsibilities to them, such as calling for help, comforting the injured, or managing traffic to ensure a safe environment.
Finally, when my relatives are given appropriate help, I would proceed to the interview venue. In case, if I reached late, I would contact the interview authorities, explain the situation, and request an excuse for rescheduling the timing of my interview. By helping the needy, I have demonstrated a strong sense of compassion, responsibility, and integrity, reflecting the qualities expected of an IAS officer.
Justification for the action taken
  • Humanitarian obligation: As a responsible and compassionate individual, it is crucial to prioritize the immediate welfare and safety of individuals in distress, particularly when they are close relatives. Providing help in such an emergency is a moral duty that takes precedence over personal commitments or professional aspirations.
  • Upholding core values: The civil services, including the role of an IAS officer, are founded on principles of public service, empathy, and commitment to the well-being of individuals and society. By actively engaging in assisting my injured relatives, I am demonstrating the very values that are sought in an aspiring civil servant.
  • Demonstrating crisis management skills: Handling unexpected and critical situations effectively is a vital attribute for an IAS officer. By promptly responding to the accident, coordinating emergency services, and informing the interview panel, I am demonstrating my ability to handle crises and make informed decisions under pressure.
  • Transparency and integrity: Communicating the situation to the interview panel with complete honesty and transparency is essential. It reflects integrity, ethical conduct, and a commitment to upholding the values expected in civil services.
This approach maintains trust and credibility, even in challenging circumstances. It also aligns with the responsibilities and ethical standards expected of an aspiring IAS officer, demonstrating the importance of balancing personal obligations with the greater good.
11. You are the head of the Human Resources department of an organisation. One day one of the workers died on duty. His family was demanding compensation. However, the company denied compensation because it was revealed in the investigation that he was drunk at the time of the accident. The workers of the company went on to strike demanding compensation for the family of the deceased. The Chairman of the management board has asked for your recommendation. What recommendation would you provide to the management? Discuss the merits and demerits of each of the recommendations. (250 words)
This case study presents a complex ethical dilemma faced by the head of Human Resources in an organization. The tragic death of a worker on duty, coupled with the revelation of his intoxication at the time of the accident, raises questions about compensating the deceased worker's family.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Balancing compassion for the grieving family, employee demands for compensation, accountability for the worker's actions, and the company's financial and ethical responsibilities pose significant ethical dilemmas in this scenario.
Recommendation 1: Provide Compensation to the Family
  • Compassionate Gesture: Providing compensation to the family of the deceased worker demonstrates empathy and support during their time of loss, fostering positive employee relations.
  • Mitigating Potential Conflict: Addressing the workers' demands for compensation can help prevent prolonged strikes, which could disrupt operations and damage the company's reputation.
  • Promoting Loyalty and Trust: By meeting the needs of employees during a crisis, the company can build trust and loyalty, enhancing employee morale and commitment.
  • Setting a Precedent: Granting compensation in this particular case may set a precedent for future incidents involving workers' negligence or misconduct, creating expectations for compensation regardless of circumstances.
  • Financial Implications: Providing compensation may impose a financial burden on the company, potentially impacting its resources and profitability.
Recommendation 2: Deny Compensation, But Provide Support and Counselling
  • Upholding Accountability: Denying compensation in this case maintains a standard of accountability for employees' actions, emphasizing the importance of following safety protocols and avoiding risky behaviours.
  • Alternative Support: Offering support to the family in the form of counselling, access to resources, or assistance with funeral expenses can address their emotional needs without setting a precedent for compensation.
  • Reinforcing Safety Measures: Emphasizing the consequences of negligent behaviour underscores the company's commitment to safety, potentially leading to increased vigilance and adherence to rules among employees.
  • Increased Tension: Denying compensation may further escalate tensions between workers and management, potentially prolonging strikes and negatively impacting employee morale and productivity.
  • Damage to Reputation: The denial of compensation could lead to negative public perception and damage the company's reputation as an employer that cares for its workers and their families.
  • Potential Legal Ramifications: Denying compensation may result in legal challenges from the family, leading to costly legal proceedings and potential damage to the company's image.
The first option of providing compensation to the family is recommended due to several reasons. Firstly, it demonstrates a compassionate response to the family's loss, recognizing the emotional and financial impact of the worker's death. This gesture can help maintain positive employee relations, foster trust, and show that the company values its workers and their families. Additionally, addressing the workers' demands for compensation can prevent prolonged strikes, which could disrupt operations and harm the company's reputation. However, careful consideration should be given to setting clear guidelines to prevent similar compensations in cases of negligence or misconduct, ensuring that accountability and responsible behaviour are upheld within the organization.
12. You are the manager of a spare parts company A and you have to negotiate a deal with the manager of a large manufacturing company B. The deal is highly competitive and sealing the deal is critical for your company. The deal is being worked out over a dinner. After dinner the manager of manufacturing company B offered to drop you to the hotel in his car. On the way to the hotel he happens to hit a motorcycle injuring the motorcyclist badly. You know the manager was driving fast and thus lost control. The law enforcement officer comes to investigate the issue and you are the sole eyewitness to it. Knowing the strict laws pertaining to road accidents you are aware that your honest account of the incident would lead to the prosecution of the manager and as a consequence the deal is likely to be jeopardized, which is of immense importance to your company. What are the dilemmas you face? What will be your response to the situation? (250 words)
The case study presents a scenario where a manager of Company A, during a critical deal negotiation with the manager of Company B, becomes an eyewitness to a road accident caused by the manager of Company B.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

In the given scenario, the manager faces several dilemmas with significant consequences.
  • Ethical Dilemma: The manager is torn between the ethical obligation to tell the truth about the accident and the potential negative impact on their company's critical deal. They must weigh the value of honesty and justice against the potential harm to their company and its employees.
  • Legal Dilemma: The manager is aware of the strict laws governing road accidents and the legal obligation to provide an honest account of the incident. However, doing so could lead to the prosecution of the manager of company B and potentially jeopardize the deal.
  • Professional Dilemma: The manager faces a conflict between their professional duty to act in the best interests of their company and the moral obligation to uphold truth and justice. They must consider the long-term consequences for their own reputation and credibility
In this situation, I would need to weigh the potential consequences of each course of action.
If I were to be truthful and report the incident
  • The manager of company B would likely be prosecuted and the deal between our companies would be jeopardized.
  • This could lead to financial losses for my company and potentially even job losses for its employees.
  • It can cost me my career advancements and may even affect my job, which would in turn affect my subsistence.
  • However, I would be upholding my values of integrity, honesty and my sense of conscience.
On the other hand, if I were to withhold the truth and cover up the incident:-
  • I would be compromising my integrity and potentially enabling the manager of company B to evade justice.
  • The deal could be negotiated to our company’s advantage.
  • But it would be detrimental to my mental health and moral obligations.
In this situation, I would choose to uphold my duty to be truthful and report the incident to the law enforcement officer. While this would likely result in the prosecution of the manager of company B and the potential loss of the deal between our companies, I believe it is important to prioritize ethical conduct and integrity over short-term gains. By doing so, I would be upholding the values and principles of my company and setting an example for others to follow.
I would also take steps to mitigate the potential negative consequences for my company, such as informing my superiors of the situation and working with them to find alternative solutions to the deal with company B.
In conclusion, as the manager of Company A, it is my responsibility to prioritize ethical conduct and integrity, even in difficult situations. While the potential consequences of reporting the incident may be significant, I believe it is important to uphold the values and principles of my company and set an example for others to follow.
13. A building permitted for three floors, while being extended illegally to 6 floors by a builder, collapses. As a consequence, a number of innocent labourers including women and children died. These labourers are migrants of different places. The government immediately announced cash relief to the aggrieved families and arrested the builder. Give reasons for such incidents taking place across the country. Suggest measures to prevent their occurrence. (250 words)
The collapse of buildings due to illegal construction is a rampant issue in many parts of the country. There are strong ethical concerns that need to be analysed to find the reasons for these occurrences in our country.
The reason for such incidents
  • Lack of Proper Oversight: Corrupt practices and negligence in issuing permits and conducting inspections allow builders to violate building regulations.
  • Greed and Profit Motive: Builders may illegally extend buildings to maximize their profits without considering the safety implications.
  • Inadequate Building Codes and Regulations: they fail to address emerging challenges and ensure safety standards. This creates loopholes that builders exploit to carry out illegal constructions
  • Rapid Urbanization and Population Growth: Pressure on the construction sector lead to haphazard and unsafe construction practices.
  • Lack of Awareness and Education: Many labourers and workers lack awareness of their rights and safety standards. This makes them vulnerable to exploitation and exposes them to hazardous working conditions
To prevent the occurrence of such incidents, the following measures can be taken
  • Strict enforcement of building codes: The government should ensure that the building codes are strictly enforced by penalizing those who violate them.
  • Regular monitoring and inspection of construction sites: The authorities should conduct regular inspections of construction sites to ensure that the buildings are being constructed as per the approved plans.
  • Quality control of construction materials: The government should ensure that the construction materials being used are of good quality and meet the required standards.
  • Accountability of officials: Officials who are found to be involved in corrupt practices or neglect their duties should be held accountable and punished.
  • Awareness campaigns: The government should conduct awareness campaigns to educate the public about the dangers of illegal constructions and the importance of adhering to building codes.
  • Involvement of the community: The local community should be involved in monitoring the construction activities in their area and report any illegal activities to the authorities.
  • Protection of Labour Rights: Strengthen labour laws and enforcement mechanisms to protect the rights and safety of laborers. This includes regular inspections of construction sites, ensuring fair wages, and providing access to healthcare and social security
In conclusion, the collapse of buildings due to illegal construction is a preventable tragedy. The government and the community must work together to ensure that such incidents do not occur in the future.
14 . You are a Public Information Officer (PIO) in a government department. You are aware that the RTI Act, 2005 envisages transparency and accountability in administration. The act has functioned as a check on the supposedly arbitrary administrative behaviour and actions. However, as a PIO you have observed that there are citizens who filed RTI applications not for themselves but on behalf of such stakeholders who purportedly want to have access to information to further their own interests. At the same time there are those RTI activists who routinely file RTI applications and attempt to extort money from the decision makers. This type of RTI activism has affected the functioning of the administration adversely and also possibly jeopardizes the genuineness of the applications which are essentially aimed at getting justice. What measures would you suggest to separate genuine and non-genuine applications? Give merits and demerits of your suggestions. (250 words)
As a Public Information Officer (PIO) in a government department, it is important to ensure that the Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005 is not misused by citizens filing non-genuine applications. It is also essential to distinguish between genuine and non-genuine applications in order to promote transparency and accountability in administration.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Some measures that can be suggested to separate genuine and non-genuine applications
1. Strengthen Verification Processes: Implement robust verification procedures to confirm the identity and intention of the applicant. This can include cross-checking the applicant's details with official records and requesting additional documentation if necessary.
  • Merits: Helps to ensure that applications are filed by genuine individuals and reduces the risk of misuse or fraudulent representation.
  • Demerits: May increase the administrative burden and time required to process RTI applications. There could also be challenges in verifying the intentions of applicants accurately.
2. Clear and Specific Application Requirements: Establish clear guidelines and requirements for RTI applications, including specifying the information being sought, purpose of the application, and the relationship of the applicant to the stakeholders involved.
  • Merits: Enables a better understanding of the information being sought, reduces ambiguity, and helps filter out applications that do not meet the specified criteria.
  • Demerits: May restrict the scope of certain legitimate applications if the requirements are too rigid. Some applicants may struggle to articulate their purpose clearly, leading to potential rejections
3. Monitoring and Disciplinary Actions: Implement a monitoring system to track the activities of RTI activists and identify any patterns of extortion or misuse. Take appropriate disciplinary actions against individuals found to be engaged in such activities.
  • Merits: Deters fraudulent behaviour and creates a deterrent effect, discouraging individuals from misusing the RTI Act for personal gain.
  • Demerits: Requires dedicated resources for monitoring and investigation. Care must be taken to ensure that disciplinary actions are fair and based on concrete evidence.
4.Public Awareness Campaigns: Conduct awareness campaigns to educate citizens about the proper use of the RTI Act, emphasizing the importance of genuine applications and the consequences of misuse.
  • Merits: Helps to create a culture of responsible RTI activism, promotes transparency, and encourages citizens to use the Act for legitimate purposes.
  • Demerits: The effectiveness of awareness campaigns may vary, and it may not completely eliminate non-genuine applications. It requires sustained efforts and resources for maximum impact.
5. Whistle-blower Protection: Establish mechanisms to protect whistle-blowers who expose corruption or misuse of the RTI Act. Encourage individuals to report instances of extortion or misuse without fear of reprisal.
  • Merits: Encourages genuine applications and discourages non-genuine ones by creating a safe environment for reporting fraudulent activities.
  • Demerits: Implementation and enforcement of whistle-blower protection mechanisms can be challenging. It may not directly address the issue of distinguishing between genuine and non-genuine applications but can indirectly discourage non-genuine ones.
In conclusion, while measures need to be taken to prevent the misuse of the RTI Act, it is important to strike a balance between ensuring transparency and accountability in administration and preventing genuine applicants from facing unnecessary hurdles.



1.(a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being. (150 words)
Ethics refers to standards of right and wrong in human conduct. It plays a vital role in promoting social and human well-being by providing a framework for making moral choices that positively impact individuals and society.
Contribution of ethics in social and human well-being
Human wellbeing
  • Promoting fairness and justice: Ethics helps establish principles of fairness and justice, ensuring equal opportunities and treatment for all individuals.
    E.g.: absence of discrimination based on gender, race, or other factors
  • Fostering empathy and compassion: Ethical considerations encourage individuals to empathize with others and act compassionately.
    E.g.: Medical professionals are guided by ethical principles like beneficence (doing good) and non-maleficence (do no harm), which require them to prioritize patient well-being and provide compassionate care.
  • Ensuring integrity and trust: Ethics establishes standards of honesty, transparency, and accountability, which are essential for building trust in personal and professional relationships.
    E.g.: being truthful in marketing and advertising, and respecting customer privacy.
Social well-being
  • Fostering cooperation and social cohesion: Ethical principles such as honesty, trustworthiness, and fairness promote cooperation and social cohesion within communities.
    E.g.: in a neighbourhood, ethical behaviour involves respecting the rights and boundaries of others, being honest in interactions
  • Promoting social justice and equality: Ethics serves as a driving force in advocating for social justice and equality.
    E.g.: individuals committed to ethical principles work towards reducing social inequalities such as caste system
  • Promoting civic engagement and social responsibility: Ethics encourages individuals to actively engage in their communities and take responsibility for the well-being of society as a whole.
    E.g.: individuals who volunteer their time for community service
Ethical principles can inform policies and practices that promote inclusivity, diversity, and equity, and ensure that everyone has access to the resources and opportunities needed to thrive.
Overall, ethics contributes to social and human well-being by promoting moral behaviour, fostering positive relationships and trust, advocating for justice and equality, and promoting the greater good of society.
1. (b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present-day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples. (150 words)
While impartiality means acting without any bias, non-partisanship is a quality of being politically neutral.
Reasons for and non-partisanship and impartiality be considered as Foundational values for a civil servant
  • Effective policy implementation: Non-partisanship allows civil servants to implement government policies effectively, irrespective of their personal beliefs or political leanings.
    E.g.: T.N Sheshan who did not bow to any politician as CEC.
  • Will help a civil servant to take decision without any fear/favour to any political party and based on constitutional principles.
    E.g.: during elections, non-partisanship will aid a DM/DC in discharging the duties of a RO effectively.
  • It ensures an effective/professional relationship between the elected representative and the civil servants.
    E.g.: will enhance/maintain the credibility of a chief secretary, irrespective of the party in power.
  • Helps a civil servant to make decisions on objective criteria and not on biases and prejudices.
    E.g.: impartiality will help the Chairman of the Finance commission, in recommending resources on objective criteria, without a bias to his/her own home state.
  • It ensures an amicable and effective relationship between civil servant and the society/citizens.
    E.g.: an impartial SDM/DSP will command respect of the people, and thus will gain their cooperation in various conflict management situations.
  • It helps build an equal attitude towards everything and everyone.
    E.g.: impartiality will aid a DM/DC in implementing benefits under PMMVY without a bias of caste or religion.
Impartiality and non-partisanship are considered as the essential qualities in a civil servant. These are necessary because, civil servants are expected/mandated to act as per law/constitution in a politically neutral manner, without any bias or prejudice
2. (a) What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’? (150 words)
Governance refers to the process of decision-making and implementation of policies and actions by the government or other institutions to manage and regulate a society or organization.
E.g.: making and implementation of scheme Ayushman Bharath

Good governance refers to a set of principles and practices that aim to ensure that the decision-making process is transparent, accountable, participatory, and responsive to the needs of the people. It involves the use of ethical and efficient management practices, promoting the rule of law, protecting human rights, and ensuring social and economic development.
E.g.: RTI act ensures transparency in governance
Ethical governance is a subset of good governance that emphasizes the importance of ethical values and principles in the decision-making process. It promotes the use of ethical standards and values such as fairness, justice, honesty, accountability, and respect for human dignity in governance. It seeks to ensure that public officials act in the best interests of society and not for personal gain.
E.g.: prohibitions of all forms of corruption (e.g., bribery, graft, and nepotism)
In summary, governance refers to the process of managing and regulating a society or organization, good governance emphasizes the importance of principles and practices that ensure transparency, accountability, and responsiveness to the needs of the people, and ethical governance focuses on the use of ethical values and principles in the decision-making process.
2. (b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of seven sins. (150 words)
Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins, known as the "Seven Social Sins" or "Seven Blunders of the World," were identified by him as the root cause of all societal evils.
Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of seven sins
  • Wealth without work: refers to the accumulation of wealth without engaging in productive or meaningful work.
    E.g.: insider trading
  • Pleasure without conscience: indulging in pleasure or personal gratification without considering the ethical implications or consequences for others.
    E.g.: use of single-use plastics
  • Knowledge without character: acquisition of knowledge or expertise without the development of moral character.
    E.g.: spreading disinformation for personal gain
  • Commerce without morality: reflects the idea that economic activities should be conducted with moral considerations, emphasizing fair and ethical business practices.
    E.g.: use of Ajinomoto in food
  • Science without humanity: scientific advancements or technological developments that are not guided by a humanistic or ethical perspective.
    E.g. Cyber-attack on public infrastructure
  • Religion without sacrifice: critiques the practice of religion without an accompanying commitment to selflessness and sacrifice for the greater good.
    E.g.: temples discriminating based on caste
  • Politics without principles: refers to the absence of moral principles and ethical conduct in political affairs.
    E.g.: 2G Scam
Gandhi believed that these sins were responsible for the moral and ethical decay of societies and individuals, and that they needed to be overcome in order to achieve true progress and well-being.
He emphasized the need for individuals to cultivate moral and ethical values in their personal and professional lives, and for governments to adopt policies that are guided by principles of justice, compassion, and service. It reflected his means and ends having to be good. He believed that only good means can lead to good ends.
Gandhi's concept of seven sins continues to be relevant in contemporary times, as societies and individuals continue to grapple with issues related to inequality, corruption, and social injustice. It serves as a reminder that material progress must be balanced with moral and ethical values, and that the pursuit of personal and collective well-being must be guided by principles of justice and compassion.
3. (a) Analyse John Rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian Context. (150 words)
John Rawls' concept of social justice is centered on the idea of fairness, where every individual in society has equal access to basic liberties and opportunities, and inequalities only exist to benefit the most disadvantaged members of society.
Rawls believes that a just society is one that ensures the fair distribution of resources and opportunities, and that this distribution should be based on principles that are agreed upon through a process of public reasoning and discourse.
John Rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian Context
  • Equal Opportunity: Rawls emphasizes the importance of providing equal opportunities to individuals, regardless of their social background or circumstances. In the Indian context, where caste-based discrimination and social inequalities persist, ensuring equal opportunities for all can be a crucial component of social justice.
  • Difference Principle: Rawls's difference principle asserts that social and economic inequalities should be arranged in a way that benefits the least advantaged members of society.
  • Public Reason and Deliberative Democracy: individuals engage in reasoned, fair, and inclusive public discourse to shape the principles and policies of a just society. In India, a diverse and pluralistic society, fostering public reason and deliberative democracy can contribute to social justice
However, implementing Rawls' concept of social justice in India is challenging due to the existing caste system, political corruption, and lack of access to education and basic resources.
Nevertheless, efforts are being made to address these issues through affirmative action policies, social welfare programs, and other initiatives aimed at promoting equality and social justice.
3. (b) Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission. (150 words)
The Public Services Code is a set of guidelines and principles recommended by the Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) to improve the functioning of public services in India. The Code provides a comprehensive framework for good governance and ethical behaviour in public service, and outlines the responsibilities of public servants and their interactions with citizens.
Public Services Code recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission
  • The key principles of the Public Services Code include accountability, transparency, impartiality, integrity, and efficiency.
  • It also emphasizes the need for regular training and capacity building for public servants, and provides guidelines for recruitment, promotion, and disciplinary action.
  • Providing guidelines for the conduct of public servants
  • Recommends reforms in the administrative structure and processes to ensure better service delivery to citizens.
  • These reforms include decentralization of power, introduction of e-governance, and greater involvement of civil society in decision-making processes.
The implementation of the Public Services Code would help in creating a more accountable, efficient, and citizen-centric public service system in India. However, its success would depend on the commitment of the government and public servants to adhere to its principles and the availability of adequate resources for its implementation.
4. a) “Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development.” Discuss Kautilya’s views. (150 words)
Kautilya, also known as Chanakya, was an ancient Indian economist and philosopher who wrote the famous treatise "Arthashastra". He emphasized the importance of ethical governance and warned about the negative impact of corruption on the society and the state's development.
Corruption causes misuse of government treasury
  • Embezzlement of funds: This occurs when public officials divert funds meant for public projects, services, or development into their own pockets.
    E.g.: government official responsible for infrastructure development siphons off a portion of the allocated funds for a road construction project and channels it into personal accounts, resulting in compromised road quality and delayed completion.
  • Ghost workers and payroll fraud: This involves the creation of fictitious employees or the inclusion of individuals who do not actually work for the government in the payroll system.
    E.g.: ghost card system in PDS
Corruption causes administrative inefficiency
  • Nepotism and favouritism in hiring and promotions: When corruption influences personnel decisions, qualified individuals may be overlooked in favour of less competent but well-connected candidates.
  • Bribery and delays in service delivery: Corruption can result in administrative delays as individuals or businesses are forced to pay bribes to expedite processes or secure services that should be provided promptly.
Corruption causes obstruction in the path of national development
  • Misallocation of resources: Corruption leads to the misallocation of public funds and resources.
    E.g.: coal scam
  • Brain drain and talent flight: Widespread corruption can drive skilled individuals to seek opportunities abroad or discourage talented individuals from pursuing public service careers.
  • Social inequality and poverty: Corruption exacerbates social inequality and perpetuates poverty.
Overall, Kautilya's views on corruption reflect the timeless nature of the problem and the need for ethical governance to promote sustainable development and social harmony.
4. (b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? (150 words)
The tendency for people to adopt the attitudes and behaviours of their social circle is referred to as social influence. Persuasion refers to the skill of persuading others to act in accordance with your preferences and/or desires.
Contribution of social influence and persuasion to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Social influence
  • Behavioural Change: Social influence played a pivotal role in bringing about behavioural change among individuals and communities.
  • Public Participation and Grassroots Movements: Social influence helped mobilize individuals, communities, and organizations to actively engage in the campaign. Celebrities, public figures, and influential individuals used their platforms to raise awareness, encourage participation, and promote the importance of cleanliness, influencing others to join the movement.
  • Social Norms and Peer Pressure: Social influence shaped social norms and peer pressure surrounding cleanliness and hygiene practices. As more individuals embraced and promoted cleanliness, it became socially desirable and expected behaviour.
  • Communication and Awareness: Persuasive communication was used to create awareness about the importance of cleanliness and hygiene. The campaign employed various media channels, including television, radio, print media, and social media
  • Social Proof: Persuasion utilized the principle of social proof, demonstrating that others were already engaging in cleanliness practices. The campaign showcased success stories, role models, and testimonials from individuals and communities who had embraced cleanliness.
  • Normative Influence: Persuasion leveraged normative influence by emphasizing social norms and expectations related to cleanliness. The campaign highlighted that cleanliness was not just an individual responsibility but a collective one.
    E.g.: swacchagrahis (hygiene volunteers) and lead from front.
Sanitation in India is a behavioural issue which would require a change in mindset of people to adopt safe practices. So, persuasion and social influence could play significant role in success of SBM.

5. Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence.

a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.

b) Giving examples show how the two differ in their approaches. (150 words)

The law is a system of rules and regulations enforced by the government, while ethics refers to moral principles and values that guide individuals and society towards right and wrong conduct. Both law and ethics work towards achieving the objective of maintaining social order and promoting the well-being of individuals and society.
a) Law and ethics making civilized social existence
  • The law achieves this objective by providing a set of rules that individuals must follow. It is enforced through punishments for those who violate it, which serves as a deterrent for others.
    E.g.: responsible driving through traffic laws
  • Ethics achieve this objective by promoting moral principles and values that guide individuals towards right conduct. It is enforced through social norms, peer pressure, and the individual's conscience.
    E.g.: telling lie is unethical in society
b). Differences in approaches of law and ethics
  • While law is based on a formal set of rules and regulations that are enforced by the government, ethics are based on moral principles that may vary based on cultural and societal norms.
  • The law often takes a reactive approach, punishing individuals for violating rules, while ethics takes a proactive approach, promoting moral values and principles that guide individuals towards right conduct.
    E.g.: while laws may prohibit discrimination against certain groups, ethical principles may promote respect and inclusion for all individuals regardless of their identity.
    E.g.: laws may prohibit stealing; ethical principles may promote honesty and integrity in all aspects of life.
Laws and ethics play complementary role in ensuring good human conduct.

6. Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and egalitarian society.

a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in Today’s educated Indians.

b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values considered necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants? (150 words)

Values are elements of life that we hold as important or desirable. They are standards of conduct and guide of human behaviour. Attitudes towards life, work, other people and society involve values such as empathy, compassion, transparency, accountability etc.

a) Undesirable values prevalent in today’s educated Indians include:
  • Lack of civic sense: Many educated Indians lack basic civic sense and fail to respect public property or follow traffic rules.
  • Entitlement mentality: Many believe that their status or connections entitle them to special treatment, privileges and exemptions from rules and regulations.
  • Gender bias: Despite education and awareness campaigns, gender bias remains prevalent in Indian society, leading to discrimination and violence against women.
  • Casteism: Though abolished by law, casteism still exists in Indian society, with people discriminating against others based on their caste.
(b) To change such undesirable attitudes and cultivate socio-ethical values in civil servants is essential for good governance and better society.
Measures to be taken
  • Education and awareness: Civil servants should be provided with education and awareness programs to help them understand the importance of socio-ethical values and how to practice them.
    E.g.: Mission Karmayogi
  • Role models: Senior civil servants who exhibit the desired values and attitudes should serve as role models for the new entrants.
    E.g.: T N Sheshan
  • Enforcement: Laws and rules against undesirable attitudes and behaviours should be enforced strictly, and those found guilty should be held accountable.
  • Training and development: Civil servants should be given regular training and development programs to improve their skills and knowledge and promote the desired values and attitudes.
Better attitudes and values inculcated will be desirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and it will make an egalitarian society.

7. Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.

a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.

b) How can hit be managed and controlled?

Anger is a powerful negative emotion that can lead to a wide range of negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.
a) Anger leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours
  • When someone is angry, they may feel hostile, irritable, and resentful.
  • This can lead to verbal or physical aggression, passive-aggressive behaviour, and even violence.
  • Anger can also negatively impact one's relationships, as it can lead to communication breakdowns, feelings of hurt and betrayal, and even the end of relationships.
  • In the workplace, anger can lead to decreased productivity, increased absenteeism, and even job loss.
(b) Ways to hit and control anger
  • One of the most effective strategies is to identify and challenge negative thought patterns that may be fuelling the anger.
    E.g.: if someone is feeling angry because they believe that someone has disrespected them, they can challenge this thought by asking themselves if there is another way to interpret the situation.
  • Other strategies include deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, and mindfulness meditation.
  • It's also important to identify and address any underlying issues that may be contributing to the anger, such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
  • Finally, seeking the help of a mental health professional can be an effective way to learn more about anger management techniques and work on changing negative thought patterns.
Control over negative emotions like anger will help to create personal and social wealth
8. “Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realize that the state bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality.” Critically analyse this statement. (150 words)
Max Weber was a German sociologist, jurist, and political economist who argued that bureaucracy was the most efficient and rational mode of operation for private businesses and government agencies.
Public administration and personal conscience are different
  • We learn our values from our family, society, religion etc. they are useful in dealing with small groups of people. But they don’t hold well in the professional discharge of duties. E.g.: we may forgive when a family member commits an error out of love and affection. But when a person in office or a citizen commits an error, we must act or else they may be tempted to break law again.
  • Individuals are entitled to follow their own values like human rights, compassion, faith Conversely, public servants must follow rules and orders. Even if they disagree, they are duty bound to implement it.
Public administration values and personal conscience are similar
  • Public administration values and personal conscience share similarities in terms of guiding individuals' actions and decisions based on ethical principles.
    E.g.: A public servant working in a government department is responsible for awarding a contract for a development project. The individual's personal conscience aligns with public administration values, such as transparency, fairness, and accountability.
  • Public administration values reinforce the individual's personal conscience by emphasizing the importance of integrity, impartiality, and adherence to ethical standards.
However, this idea that bureaucracy might be a substantive ethical domain has been criticized as being inherently unethical. This one-sided rationality sustains itself through repressing and marginalizing of values. This result in the bureaucracy developing into an elite class at the cost of other sections of the society. In fact, the bureaucracy derives its legitimacy from the people and the democratic values they uphold.
The adoption of the Code of Ethics by the Indian Civil Services is a step in this direction. The code provides guidelines for ethical behaviour, transparency, and accountability in public administration. Therefore, it is crucial to balance the need for an independent bureaucratic morality with the need to uphold democratic values and ethical norms.


9. A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The salary is also good. However, after a few months, she accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods. They advise her to keep quiet as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole breadwinner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings. At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why should she stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart, she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.
a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?
b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why? (250 words)
This case study is about a person who finds a morally wrong scenario being happening at her workplace but can’t bring it to the forefront as she might get terminated. Considering how important this income is for her family, It is natural on her part to listen to the advice of her colleagues. However, her conscience does not let her live at peace with this information at her hand.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a) Keeping quiet about the toxic waste being discharged into the river is not morally right for several reasons.
  • It is a violation of the right to clean and healthy environment of the villagers living downstream.
  • It goes against the ethical principles of honesty, integrity, and transparency which are important for any individual, especially those in positions of responsibility.
  • It is also a violation of professional ethics as chemical industries have a responsibility to ensure that their operations do not cause harm to the environment and public health.
  • By keeping quiet, she would be contributing to the harmful consequences of the company's actions and may be indirectly responsible for the harm caused to the villagers.
b) Course of action
  • I would advise her to first gather evidence of the toxic waste being discharged into the river, and then report the matter to the appropriate authorities, such as the Pollution Control Board or the District Magistrate.
  • She could also approach non-governmental organizations working on environmental issues for support and guidance. It may be helpful to document her concerns and efforts to address the issue, in case she faces retaliation from the company. While this may put her job at risk, it is important for her to prioritize her ethical values and responsibilities towards the society and environment over her personal interests.
  • If nothing works and after probing all internal mechanism to mitigate the issue, she could whistle blow the details with evidence to the media.
  • Additionally, she could explore legal options to protect herself against any adverse consequences of her actions.
It is important to remember that by taking action, she would be doing the right thing and contributing towards a cleaner and healthier environment for everyone.
10. Land needed for mining, dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis, hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some other accusation. They end up as low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their development goes to industries, industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical.
Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how would you approach the problem and what would be the main elements of your suggested policy? (250 words)
Displacement of people due to large-scale projects is a complex issue that needs to be addressed with sensitivity and care. A compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy that is just and equitable can help in minimizing the adverse impacts on the lives and livelihoods of the affected people.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Approach to the problem
  • Data oriented: Any solution to the matter should be data-oriented. Adequate and realistic data that resemble the current situation is necessary to chart out a compensation policy
  • Analysing social variables of the displaced: The displaced people comprise mainly from the marginalised class. The adequate needs of the vulnerable section are to be understood for a people-oriented policy.
  • Humane oriented:- The compensation package must serve the displaced community. The land acquisition should pay a sum that can help the displaced to save and to find new livelihood.
  • Welfare state approach:- The general outlook to the problem should be based on a welfare state approach which puts its citizen as its first priority.
The main elements of a compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy
  • Consultation and participation: The first step would be to ensure that the affected people are consulted and their views and concerns are taken into account while designing the policy. This can be done through community meetings, focus group discussions and other participatory methods.
  • Fair compensation: The compensation should be based on the market value of the land and other assets that are being acquired, and should also take into account the future income streams that are being lost.
  • Livelihood restoration: The policy should include measures to restore the livelihoods of the affected people. This could include providing vocational training and employment opportunities and supporting the development of alternative livelihoods such as agriculture, handicrafts, and small-scale industries.
  • Infrastructure development: The policy should also include provisions for the development of basic infrastructure such as schools, health centres, and roads in the resettlement areas.
  • Social and cultural preservation: This could be done through the provision of community spaces such as temples and other places of worship, and support for cultural activities and festivals.
In conclusion, the displacement of people due to large-scale projects is a serious issue that requires a just and equitable compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy. The ethical ideas of compassion and empathy are vital for formulating such a policy.
11. Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility criteria. But after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are in a dilemma as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman
a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma?
b) Give your reasons for it.
The case study is about the dilemma an officer faces when an old and destitute woman lacks the necessary documents for a social service scheme. This is a situation which contradicts procedural duties and empathy while being in public service.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a) Rational way to resolve this dilemma
  • In such a situation, the rational way to resolve the dilemma would be to make a thorough assessment of the woman's situation and needs and to document all evidences and witnesses.
  • This can be done by conducting a detailed investigation and inquiry into her background and living conditions.
  • Meanwhile she can be directed to a government facility or NGO taking care of the destitute.
  • If the investigation confirms that she is indeed destitute and in need have support, then the officer in-charge can exercise his/her discretion and provide the necessary support under the scheme, even if the woman does not have the required documents.
  • The officer needs to update the happenings with his superiors to make sure that the line of communication and documentations is perfect.
  • Efforts must be done to provide her with the relevant documents by working with other departments, so that in future such a situation can be avoided
The decision should be made based on the principle of humanity and compassion, and not just based on strict adherence to rules and regulations.
b) The reason for this approach
  • Ultimate objective of the social service scheme is to provide support to old and destitute women who are in need of it.
  • The rules and regulations governing the scheme are intended to ensure that the benefits are given to those who genuinely deserve it, and to prevent misuse and abuse of the scheme.
  • However, in cases where a destitute woman is unable to produce the necessary documents due to illiteracy or lack of awareness, denying her the support would defeat the very purpose of the scheme.
  • At the same time, the officer in-charge should exercise his/her discretion judiciously, and ensure that the support is given only to those who are genuinely in need of it, and not to those who are trying to take advantage of the system.
Government officials must take proactive steps to provide basic documents necessary for availing such schemes to the marginalised and illiterate people within their jurisdiction.
12. You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a government office working as an assistant to the director of your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to lean and progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train you for your job. He is a very intelligent and well-informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you respect your boss and are looking forward to lean a lot from him. Since you have good tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work.
You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited for a while. After entering the house, the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his answer did not satisfy you.
Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behaviour is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up bit wife. His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. you see that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home.
In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyse each option with its consequences.
a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.
b) Repost the case to the appropriate authority.
c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation. (250 Words)
The case study is about the crisis of conscience of an individual, who finds his respectable boss being engaged in domestic violence at his home. The dilemma of prioritising career aspirations or informing the authorities is visible in this situation.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

As a responsible employee, it is important to address such a sensitive and serious issue. Here are some options with their consequences:
(a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter
  • His personal career growth can be pursued without hindrance.
  • The image of the department can be saved.
  • This option is not ethical and shows a lack of empathy towards the victim.
  • Ignoring the situation may allow the boss to continue his violent behaviour and cause harm to his wife.
  • Acting against his conscience.
  • It is against the rule of law.
(b) Report the case to the appropriate authority
  • This is a formal approach and involves reporting the matter to the appropriate authorities such as the HR department or the police.
  • This option may result in an investigation and appropriate action being taken against the boss.
  • Follows the rule of law and becomes a vigilant citizen.
  • Cause harm to the victim if she is not ready to report the matter and may lead to further complications in her personal life.
  • Relying on third party information and not talking to his boss or his wife about the issue.
(c) Own innovative approach towards the situation
  • This approach involves trying to resolve the issue in a manner that is comfortable for both parties involved.
  • One approach could be to first meet the victim and talk to her about this issue.
  • Provide support and assistance to the victim and encourage her to seek help or counselling.
  • If it is confirmed that she is being subjected to domestic violence, one should encourage her to report this issue or confront the boss and ask him to seek counselling regarding his anger issues. If the boss is unwilling for counselling, one can go for option b.
Overall, option C is the most ethical approach as it involves first confirming the reality of the issue and then reporting the matter to the appropriate authority and ensuring that appropriate action is taken. However, if the victim is not ready to report the matter, then it may be necessary to explore alternative options such as discussing the matter with the boss or providing support to the victim. It is important to handle such situations with sensitivity and empathy while also ensuring that appropriate action is taken to address the issue.
13. ABC Ltd. Is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding the generating employment. The company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient technology that will help the company to save production cost by 20%. The company’s decision goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped regions. The government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost of living, aliens migrating to the region, disturbing the social and economic order. The company sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and public in general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and some of the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government did not yield any result.
a) Identify the issues involved in the case
b) What can be suggested to satisfy the company’s goal and to address the residents’ concern? (300 Words)
ABC Ltd. finds itself in an ethical dilemma as it plans to establish a new plant in Vikaspuri, an underdeveloped region. While the company aims to expand its business, generate employment, and save production costs through energy-efficient technology, it is confronted with the potential negative impact on the tranquil lives of the region's inhabitants. Balancing the pursuit of economic growth and shareholder interests with the social and economic well-being of the community poses a significant ethical challenge for the company.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Issues involved in the case
  • Conflict between corporate interests and social interests: The establishment of the new plant by ABC Ltd. is a decision based on its expansion and diversification plans. However, this decision may cause chaos for the residents of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The conflict between corporate interests and social interests is the primary issue in this case.
  • Government policies: The government has announced tax holidays for companies investing in underdeveloped areas to attract investment and develop such areas. However, the government policy may have unintended consequences, such as increased cost of living, migration, and disturbance of the social and economic order.
  • Awareness regarding Corporate Social Responsibility: The company has attempted to educate the people of Vikaspuri region and the public about its Corporate Social Responsibility policy, which it believes would help overcome the likely difficulties of the residents of Vikaspuri region. However, the residents are not convinced.
  • Legal implications: The residents have decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the government did not yield any result. This may have legal implications for the company and the government.
Suggestions to satisfy the company’s goal and address the residents’ concern
  • The company needs to engage with the residents of Vikaspuri region in a dialogue to understand their concerns and address them. The company could initiate a community engagement program to involve the residents in the decision-making process.
  • The company could also consider a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiative that is tailored to the needs of the Vikaspuri region. This could include investment in education, healthcare, infrastructure, and other social services that are essential to the development of the region.
  • The government could also consider the concerns of the residents of Vikaspuri region and take steps to address them. The government could work with the company to ensure that the impact of the new plant on the residents is minimal.
  • The company could explore alternative locations for the new plant that are less disruptive to the residents of Vikaspuri region. This would require a cost-benefit analysis to determine the feasibility of the project in the new location.
In conclusion, when navigating the ethical dilemma faced by ABC Ltd. in establishing a new plant in Vikaspuri, it is crucial to prioritize certain ethical principles. Firstly, the principle of beneficence calls for considering the well-being of the community and minimizing harm to the residents. Secondly, the principle of justice requires equitable distribution of benefits and ensuring that the economic gains do not disproportionately burden the inhabitants. Additionally, transparency and open communication are essential in addressing concerns and involving stakeholders in decision-making processes. Ultimately, by upholding these ethical principles, ABC Ltd. can strive to find a balanced solution that maximizes the positive impacts of its expansion while mitigating potential disruptions to the social and economic order of Vikaspuri.
14) Saraswati was a successful IT professional in the USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing something for the country she returned to India. Together with some other likeminded friends, she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.
The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at a nominal cost. She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of Government agencies. The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most was delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes. Her experience and the experience of many others like her has deterred people from taking up social service projects.
A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be exercised in a coercive a corrupt manner. What measures can you suggest to ensure that due control is exercised but well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted? (300 words)
This case study highlights the challenges faced by Saraswati, a patriotic individual who returned to India to establish an NGO with the objective of building a school for a poor rural community. However, bureaucratic hurdles, delays, corrupt practices, and the demand for bribes from government officials hindered her efforts. This raises the question of how to strike a balance between necessary government control over voluntary social work and ensuring the integrity of well-meaning and honest NGO initiatives.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

The ethical issues arising from the case study
  • Corruption and Bribery: The demand for bribes by government officials presents a significant ethical issue. It undermines the principles of fairness, integrity, and transparency in the process of obtaining permissions and carrying out social service projects.
  • Coercion and Delays: The delays and callous attitude of officials create frustration and hinder the timely execution of social service projects. Coercive practices, such as unnecessary requirements and complex procedures, can deter individuals from engaging in meaningful social work.
  • Lack of Accountability: The absence of accountability within government agencies allows officials to act with impunity and engage in corrupt practices without facing consequences. This erodes public trust and discourages honest efforts to contribute to the betterment of society.
  • Unfair Burden on NGOs: The burdensome rules and confusing procedures imposed on NGOs can hinder their ability to effectively carry out their objectives. This creates an ethical issue of placing undue barriers on individuals or organizations seeking to contribute to social welfare.
  • Diminished Public Participation: The negative experiences faced by Saraswati and others like her can deter individuals from engaging in social service initiatives, resulting in diminished public participation in addressing societal challenges.
To ensure that due control is exercised over voluntary social work without hindering the efforts of honest NGOs, the following measures can be suggested:
  • Simplify rules and procedures: The government should simplify the rules and procedures required for setting up an NGO and seeking permission for social service projects. The process should be made transparent, easy to understand, and less cumbersome.
  • Time-bound approvals: The government should set a specific timeline for granting approvals and permissions for social service projects. This will reduce delays and frustrations faced by individuals and NGOs.
  • Accountability and transparency: The government officials responsible for granting approvals and permissions should be held accountable for their actions. They should be required to provide reasons for any delays or rejections of applications. Transparency in decision-making can help prevent corruption and malpractice.
  • Online platforms: The government can create an online platform for NGOs and individuals to submit their proposals and seek approvals. This will reduce the need for physical interactions and can make the process more efficient.
  • Whistle-blower protection: The government should provide protection to whistle-blowers who report corruption and malpractice in the approval process. This will encourage individuals to come forward and report any wrongdoing.
  • Citizen feedback mechanism: The government can create a feedback mechanism for citizens to provide feedback on the approval process. This can help identify areas of improvement and prevent corruption.
  • Capacity building: The government can provide training and capacity building programs for NGOs and individuals on the approval process and compliance requirements. This will help them navigate the system more efficiently and reduce the likelihood of non-compliance.
In conclusion, to address the ethical challenges in this situation, it is crucial to uphold integrity, transparency, and fairness. Government agencies should prioritize accountability and eliminate corrupt practices while streamlining procedures to facilitate NGO initiatives. By promoting public participation, empathy, and equitable decision-making, a conducive environment can be created to support well-meaning efforts and ensure the effective execution of social service projects.



1. What is meant by ‘environmental ethics’? Why is it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics. (150 words)
Environmental ethics is a branch of ethics that examines the moral relationship between humans and the natural environment. It involves the study of moral principles and values that guide our behaviour towards the environment and its various components.
Importance of studying environmental ethics
  • It helps us to recognize the value and intrinsic worth of the natural world.
  • Environmental ethics helps us to understand the moral implications of our actions towards the environment - we can make more informed decisions
  • Helps to address complex environmental challenges like how to allocate environmental resources in a fair and equitable manner etc.
One environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics
  • One of the most pressing environmental issues of our time is climate change. It raises significant moral concerns. Climate change is a result of human activities such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation. Climate change affects not only humans but also non-human beings and the natural world.
  • Environmental ethics demands that we act responsibly towards the environment by reducing our reliance on fossil fuels, promoting renewable energy sources, and adopting sustainable lifestyles.
  • We must protect forests, oceans, and wildlife. In this way, environmental ethics provides us with a moral framework to address the complex environmental issues of our time.
  • In the 21st century, environment and its protection has the highest priority thereby environmental ethics too.
1.(b) Differentiate between the following
  1. Law and ethics
  2. Ethical management and management of ethics
  3. Discrimination and preferential treatment
  4. Personal Ethics and Professional Ethics(150 words)
1) Law and ethics
  • Law refers to a set of rules and regulations that are enforced by the state or governing body to maintain social order and ensure justice. Ethics, on the other hand, refers to a set of moral principles and values that guide individuals or organizations in making decisions and actions that are morally right or wrong.
  • laws are enforced through punishment or penalties, ethics are enforced through personal beliefs and values.
    Eg.: traffic laws and telling lie is bad behaviour
2) Ethical management and management of ethics
  • Ethical management is responsible management practices which integrate sustainability, profit and inclusiveness.
  • In civil services, ethical management translates into a reflection of public-centric values like objectivity, impartiality, compassion and integrity etc. in the administration and management of public resources.
  • Management of ethics means setting in place control mechanisms which can guide the behaviour and conduct of members of an organization in an ethically upright way. In civil services, this is ensured through a merit-based selection system, training, code of conduct and reward-punishment measures.
3)  Discrimination and preferential treatment:
  • Discrimination refers to the unfair treatment of an individual or group based on their characteristics such as race, gender, religion, age, etc. Preferential treatment, on the other hand, is the granting of special privileges or opportunities to an individual or group based on their characteristics.
  • Discrimination is often illegal, while preferential treatment can be used in certain circumstances such as affirmative action policies.
    E.g.: Caste discrimination and caste-based reservation.
4) Personal Ethics and Professional Ethics
  • Personal ethics refer to the individual's own moral values and principles that guide their behaviour and decision-making. Professional ethics, on the other hand, refer to the ethical principles and standards that govern the behaviour of professionals in their respective fields.
  • Professional ethics are established by professional organizations and are enforced through codes of conduct and standards of practice.
In summary, the differences between these pairs of concepts are based on their nature, application, legality, and enforcement.
2. Given are two quotations of moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these bring out what it means to you in the present context. (a) “The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of strong.” (150 words)
This quote by Mahatma Gandhi means that forgiveness is not an act of weakness, but rather a display of strength.
  • It takes a lot of courage and inner strength to forgive someone who has wronged us. Only a strong person can look beyond the hurt and anger and choose to forgive, while the weak hold on to grudges and resentments.
  • Forgiveness is an act of compassion that allows us to move on from the past and focus on the present. In the present context, where there is so much conflict and division, this quote is a reminder that forgiveness is an important tool for healing and reconciliation.
  • It encourages us to rise above our differences and embrace a spirit of forgiveness and understanding.
Meaning in current context as examples
  • Unsolved Russia Ukraine crisis id due to weakness of both sides in forgiven.
  • Nelson Mandela was sentenced to jail for the rest of his life. In prison, the conditions were gruelling. Mandela stayed in prison for 27 years. But rather than being resentful when he came out, he forgave everyone.
  • Gandhiji and his great ideal of non-violence is an example of forgiveness.
It is true that Mandela famously said “Forgiveness liberates the soul, it removes fear. That's why it's such a powerful weapon.”
2. (b) “We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light” (150 words)
This quote by Plato implies that ignorance and fear are major obstacles to personal growth and development. It is natural for children to be afraid of the dark, as it is an unknown and potentially dangerous environment. However, it is a tragedy when adults are afraid of knowledge, truth, and understanding, as it limits their potential for personal growth and societal progress.
Meaning in the present context
  • Misinformation: there is so much information available at our fingertips, it is important to embrace a spirit of curiosity and openness to new ideas and perspectives.
    E.g.: large amount of fake news during Covid 19
  • Some people may deny the existence of climate change because it challenges their worldview or requires them to make changes in their lifestyle.
  • some individuals may refuse to acknowledge their own flaws or mistakes, which prevents them from growing and improving as a person
  • lack of scientific temper and promoting illegal medicinal practices
Fear of the unknown or fear of change can prevent individuals from exploring new opportunities and taking risks that can lead to personal and professional growth. The real tragedy of life is when individuals choose to remain in the darkness of ignorance rather than seeking the light of knowledge and truth.
3. (a) “A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also has to have a well-developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties” Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples where (i) an act is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. (150 words)
Public servants should not act mechanically while implementing the laws or performing their duties. They must also consider the consequences of their actions while discharging their duties. They must use their discretionary powers to work for the public good and create better society.
An act is ethically right, but not legally
A man has given his house on rent. However, the tenant refuses to vacate the flat after the expiry of the lease agreement. The man requests his IPS friend to get the house vacated. The friend sends local police officers to the house who threaten and thrash the tenant. As a result, the house is vacated by the tenant. Such an action is ethically right, but legally wrong.
An act is legally right, but not ethically
A police officer catches a poor and hungry man stealing bread and arrests him for theft. He is legally right as all thefts are punishable in law. However, such an action may not be ethically right since the act was done under desperation and the amount is quite small. The punishment is quite disproportionate to the crime.
Thus, public servants must also consider the ethical implications of their actions and strive to act in the best interest of the public.
3. (b) How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples (150 words)
Trustworthiness is the quality of being reliable, honest, and responsible. Fortitude, on the other hand, is the quality of courage and strength in the face of adversity or difficulty.
Virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service Trustworthiness
  • It means that officials should always act in the best interests of the public and maintain the trust that has been placed in them.
  • Upholding the Rule of Law: Trustworthy public servants uphold the rule of law and respect legal principles and obligations
  • Transparency and Openness: Trustworthy public servants prioritize transparency and open communication. They ensure that information related to government operations, policies, and decision-making processes is readily accessible to the public.
  • It means officials must have the courage to stand up for what is right, even if it goes against popular opinion or if there are risks involved.
  • Resilience in Adversity: Public service can be demanding and subject to criticism and scrutiny. Fortitude allows public servants to withstand adversity, navigate challenges, and learn from setbacks.
  • A public official like Ashok Khemka IAS who uncovers corruption in their department may face threats or pressure to remain silent, but if they have fortitude, they will speak out and report the wrongdoing to the appropriate authorities.
The virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude play a crucial role in the public service by ensuring that public officials uphold high ethical standards and can fulfil their duties with integrity and courage.
4. (a) “Social values are more important than economic values.” Discuss the above statement with examples in the context of inclusive growth of a nation. (150 words)
Social values refer to the collective beliefs, principles, and ideals that guide individuals and communities in their interactions, behaviours, and decision-making within a society.
E.g.: Equality, Justice, Respect etc
Economic values refer to the principles and beliefs that guide individuals, businesses, and societies in their economic activities and decision-making.
E.g.: Profitability, Efficiency, Innovation and Entrepreneurship etc
Social values are more important than economic values in context of inclusive growth
  • Focus solely on economic growth may result in unequal distribution of wealth, where only a few sections of society benefit. Rather, when social values are given priority, benefits of economic growth are shared equitably, and disadvantaged groups are provided with opportunities to participate in the growth process.
  • Measures such as affirmative action programs can help ensure that marginalized groups that not only benefits these groups but also contributes to the overall development of the country by ensuring that the talent and potential of all citizens are utilized.
social values are critical to ensuring that economic growth is inclusive and benefits all sections of society. Economic growth should be viewed as a means to achieve social development, rather than an end in itself.
4. (b) Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc. are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid to take prompt decisions. Analyse the situation in detail and suggest how the dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest how these negative impacts can be minimised. (150 words)
The introduction of the Right to Information Act, media and judicial activism has been significant steps towards increasing transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government.
  • RTI act: increased People’s right over information – public offices bound give data – increased transparency and accountability
  • Media: social media makes news’s at fingertip – access to wide audience – fast negative action – so increased accountability
  • Judicial activism: Protecting Whistle-blowers - Reviewing Administrative Actions - Public Interest Litigation – increased transparency and accountability
Misuse of mechanisms
  • RTI Act has been used to harass government officials by flooding them with numerous frivolous and repetitive queries, resulting in a waste of time and resources
  • Fear of repercussions by media officers may hesitate to make prompt decisions, fearing adverse public scrutiny, legal challenges, or negative media coverage.
  • PIL being misused to threaten officers and actions taken by them leading to delay in execution.
Measures to resolve this dichotomy:
  • Strengthen guidelines to ensure that the RTI Act and other mechanisms are used judiciously and not as a tool for harassment or personal gain.
  • Provide training to the officers to help them understand the importance of transparency and accountability while also enabling them to take prompt decisions without fear of reprisal.
  • Create a culture of transparency and accountability in the government and ensure that officers who uphold these values are recognized and rewarded.
  • Judiciary should ensure that judicial activism can’t be used to hinder the decision-making power of the officials
Hence, it is essential to strike a balance between the need for transparency and accountability and the ability of the government to function effectively, and minimize the negative impacts.
5. (a) Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude. Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits. (150 words)
Bureaucratic attitude refers to a rigid and rule-based approach towards work, where the emphasis is on following the prescribed procedures and processes without any deviation or flexibility. Democratic attitude emphasizes participation, consultation, and responsiveness to the needs and aspirations of the citizens.
Bureaucratic attitude Democratic attitude
characterized by a hierarchical and centralized decision-making process emphasizes decentralization and empowerment of the citizens
consistency and predictability in decision-making more responsive to the needs and aspirations of the citizens
demerits include rigidity and lack of flexibility may lead to delays and inefficiencies due to the need for consultation and participation
5. (b) Is it possible to balance the two too create a better administration for the faster development of our country? (150 words)
It is possible to balance the bureaucratic and democratic attitudes to create a better administration for the faster development of our country.
  • One approach is to adopt a hybrid model, where the benefits of both the attitudes are combined while minimizing their drawbacks.
  • This can be achieved by decentralizing decision-making to the local level while ensuring that the decisions are consistent with the overall objectives of the government.
  • The government can also adopt a more participatory approach towards policymaking by involving citizens and stakeholders in the decision-making process.
  • Furthermore, training and capacity building can be provided to public servants to help them develop the necessary skills and attitudes to work in a democratic and participatory environment.
  • Finally, the government can also introduce measures to promote accountability and transparency, such as the use of technology and information systems, to monitor the performance of public servants and ensure that they are delivering services efficiently and effectively.
6. (a) Today we find that in-spite of various measures of prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilance cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanism, corrupt practices are not coming under control. Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications(150 words)
The measures of prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilance cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanism have been helpful to some extent in bringing transparency and accountability in the functioning of government and reducing corruption.
The establishment of vigilance cells and commissions has helped to investigate and prosecute corrupt officials. RTI has given citizens the power to access information and hold public officials accountable. The media has played a vital role in exposing corruption and holding public officials accountable. Strengthening of legal mechanisms has also helped in prosecuting corrupt officials.
Reasons for limited effectiveness of these measures
  • Codes of conduct are often not followed in spirit, vigilance cells and commissions are not independent and lack power,
  • RTI is not effectively implemented, media is sometimes biased and legal mechanisms are often slow and inefficient.
  • Corrupt officials find new and innovative ways to circumvent these measures.
  • There is also a lack of political will to implement these measures effectively.
  • Moreover, the legal process is often slow, and corrupt officials can exploit legal loopholes to delay justice.
6. (b) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace (150 words)
More effective strategies to tackle corruption
  • Strengthening of anti-corruption laws such as Vigilance act and their effective implementation with strict punishment for offenders.
  • Simplification and transparency in administrative procedures and reduction in bureaucratic discretion.
  • Use of technology for greater transparency and accountability in government functioning.
  • Promotion of ethical values and development of a culture of intolerance towards corruption through education and awareness programs.
  • Encouraging citizen participation and engagement in government processes to ensure greater accountability and transparency.
  • Empowering whistle-blowers and protecting them from victimization.
  • Strengthening of institutions like Lokpal and Lokayuktas to ensure independent and effective investigations of corruption cases.
These measures require political will, adequate resources, and a sustained effort from all stakeholders to ensure transparency, accountability, and ethical behaviour in public service. Only then can we hope to achieve a corruption-free society and promote inclusive growth and development of the nation.
7 . At the international level, bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This will lead to conflicts and tension between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples (150 words)
Ethical considerations like mutual respect, understanding, and cooperation can play a significant role in resolving tensions between nations that promote their own national interests without regard for others. When nation’s try to promote self-interests, it causes conflicts
E.g.: the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war
Ethical consideration helps in resolving tensions between nations
  • Paris Agreement is a significant example of ethical consideration resolving tensions between nations. The agreement, each nation committed to reducing emissions to a certain extent, and the agreement aims to prevent catastrophic global warming.
  • World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization that promotes ethical considerations by enforcing global trade agreements and resolving trade disputes among member nations. It promotes fair trade policies that benefit all nations.
  • Panchsheel principles of mutual respect, equality, non-aggression etc, the Vasudeva kudumbakam ethics of India help solve global issues like border disputes and vaccine problems.
Ethical considerations can play a crucial role in resolving tensions between nations that promote their own national interests. By adopting ethical principles such as fair trade and human rights, nations can work together to promote inclusive growth and development, reduce tensions, and build a more peaceful world.
8. Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of “Conflict of Interest”. What do you understand by the term “Conflict of Interest” and how does it manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of interest situation how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples. (150 words)
Conflict of interest refers to a situation where an individual, such as a public servant, has multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt their judgment and decision-making abilities.
In the context of public service, conflict of interest arises when a public servant has a personal interest that conflicts with their professional duties and responsibilities.
Conflict of Interest manifest in the decision making
  • Chandra kochar case
  • In decision-making, conflict of interest can manifest in various ways. For instance, a public servant may favour a certain company for a government contract due to their personal connections or financial interest in that company. Such situations can lead to unethical practices, biased decisions, and misuse of power.
How to Resolve such Situation
  • A public servant must disclose their personal interest and recuse themselves from the decision-making process.
  • Rule of law: Every public servant should keep the Constitution as guiding light while making any law.
  • Follow All India Services Conduct Rule, 1964
If a public servant has a financial interest in a company bidding for a government contract, they must declare their conflict of interest and abstain from making decisions related to the contract. This ensures transparency and accountability in decision-making and helps prevent any potential ethical violations.
Conflict of interest is a common ethical issue faced by public servants. To avoid the negative consequences of such conflicts, public servants must prioritize their professional duties over personal interests and make transparent and unbiased decisions.


9. A private company is known for its efficiency, transparency and employee welfare. The company though owned by a private individual has a cooperative character where employees feel a sense of ownership. The company employs nearly 700 personnel and they have voluntarily decided not to form union.
One day suddenly in the morning, about 40 men belonging to political party gate-crashed into the factory demanding jobs in the factory. They threatened the management and employees, and also used foul language. The employees feel demoralized. It was clear that those people who gate crashed wanted to be on the payroll of the company as well as continue as the volunteers/members of the party.
The company maintains high standards in integrity and does not extend favours to civil administration that also includes law enforcement agency. Such incident occur in public sector also.
  • Assume you are the CEO of the company. What would you do to diffuse the volatile situation on the date of gate crashing with the violent mob sitting inside the company premises?
  • What can be the long-term solution to the issue discussed in the case?
  • Every solution/action that you suggest will have a negative and a positive impact on you as (CEO), the employees and the performance of the employees. Analyse the consequences of each of your suggested actions.(250 words)
This case highlights the ethical dilemmas faced by a private company known for its efficiency, transparency, and employee welfare. The sudden intrusion by members of a political party, demanding jobs and attempting to exploit the company's reputation, presents ethical challenges related to integrity, employee morale, and the company's relationship with civil administration and law enforcement agencies.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a) As the CEO of the company my course of action would be:
  • My first priority would be the safety and security of the employees and the premises. I would immediately call the local law enforcement agency to handle the situation.
  • Simultaneously, I would also try to initiate a dialogue with the mob leaders to understand their demands and concerns. I would make it clear to them that the company cannot give in to their illegal and unethical demands.
  • I would also remind them that the company has a cooperative character and that the employees have voluntarily decided not to form a union.
  • I would try to convince them to leave the premises peacefully, and if necessary, offer them a meeting with the management to address their concerns in a lawful and peaceful manner.
b) The long-term solution to the issue discussed in the case would involve a multi-pronged approach.
  • Firstly, the company should continue to maintain high standards in integrity and not extend favours to political parties or any civil administration.
  • Secondly, the company should work towards building a positive image in the local community through regular engagement and participation in local initiatives.
  • Thirdly, the company should consider forming a legal framework to deal with any future instances of such illegal and unethical demands.
  • Lastly, the company should also consider providing skill development and training programs to the local youth to enable them to become employable in the future.
c) Every solution/action suggested will have both positive and negative impacts. If I call the law enforcement agency:
  • It may affect the relationship between the company and the local community.
  • The negative impact on the employees could be the fear and anxiety caused by the incident.
  • However, the positive impact would be that the employees feel protected and secure in their workplace.
On the other hand, if I initiate a dialogue with the mob leaders:
  • The positive impact would be that it may help to resolve the issue peacefully.
  • However, the negative impact could be that it sets a precedent for future such incidents.
In the long run, the positive impact of building a positive image in the local community and providing skill development programs would be that it would create a positive relationship between the company and the community. However, the negative impact could be the cost incurred in such initiatives.
10. You are the Sarpanch of a Panchayat. There is a primary school run by the government in your area. Midday meals are provided to children attending the school. The headmaster has now appointed a new cook in the school to prepare the meals. However, when it is found that cook is from Dalit community, almost half of the children belonging to higher castes are not allowed to take meals by their parents. Consequently, the attendance in the schools falls sharply. This could result in the possibility of discontinuation of midday meal scheme, thereafter of teaching staff and subsequent closing down the school.
a) Discuss some feasible strategies to overcome the conflict and to create right ambiance.
b) What should be the responsibilities of different social segments and agencies to create positive social ambiance for accepting such changes?(250 words)
The case study highlights ethical concerns surrounding caste-based discrimination in the provision of midday meals at a government-run school. The parents of children belonging to higher castes refuse to allow their children to partake in the meals prepared by a cook from the Dalit community, resulting in a sharp decline in attendance. This discriminatory behaviour raises questions about social equality, access to education, and the potential closure of the school.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a)In order to overcome the conflict and create a positive ambiance, the following strategies can be adopted
  • Sensitization programs: Sensitization programs can be organized for the parents, teachers, and students to educate them about the ill-effects of discrimination on the basis of caste. These programs can be conducted by NGOs, social activists, and experts in the field.
  • Community meetings: Meetings can be organized with the parents, teachers, and members of the local community to discuss the issue and find solutions collectively. The parents can be encouraged to send their children to school and to support the midday meal scheme.
  • Inclusive School Curriculum: Incorporate teachings on social equality, diversity, and the negative consequences of caste-based discrimination into the school curriculum. This can help instil values of inclusivity and acceptance from an early age, promoting a more inclusive and harmonious environment
  • Involvement of local leaders: The involvement of local leaders from different social segments can also help in resolving the issue. They can use their influence to convince the parents to send their children to school and support the midday meal scheme.
  • Monitoring and Reporting Mechanisms: Establish a system to monitor and report incidents of discrimination within the school. This can help identify patterns, address grievances, and take appropriate actions to create a safe and inclusive environment.
b) The responsibility of different social segments and agencies to create a positive social ambiance for accepting such changes is as follows
  • Government: The government has the responsibility to ensure that there is no discrimination on the basis of caste or any other factor. The government can introduce policies and programs to promote social equality and eliminate discrimination.
  • NGOs and social activists: NGOs and social activists can play a crucial role in creating awareness and sensitizing people about the issue. They can organize campaigns, workshops, and meetings to educate people about the ill-effects of discrimination.
  • Media: The media can also play a significant role in creating a positive social ambiance. They can highlight the issue and create awareness about the importance of social equality.
  • Local leaders: Local leaders from different social segments can also contribute to creating a positive social ambiance. They can use their influence to promote social equality and eliminate discrimination.
  • Policy formulators: The policy makers should address such discriminations that exist in our society while formulating different policies. They must ensure that the issues that exist in our society are being wiped out in a timely manner.
In conclusion, addressing the issue of caste-based discrimination in the provision of midday meals requires a strong commitment to ethical values that promote social equality, inclusivity, and respect for human dignity. Upholding these values is essential to create a conducive and harmonious environment within the school and the broader community. By fostering empathy, understanding, and open dialogue, we can challenge deep-rooted biases and work towards building a society that celebrates diversity and upholds the principles of justice and equality for all.
11. One of the scientists working in the R&D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of the company’s bestselling veterinary drugs has the potential to cure a currently incurable liver disease which is prevalent in tribal areas. However, developing a variant of the drug suitable for human being entailed a lot of research and development having a huge expenditure to the extent of Rs. 50 crores. It was unlikely that company would recover the cost as the disease was rampant only in poverty-stricken areas having very little market otherwise.
If you were the CEO, then
a ) Identify the various actions that you could take
b) Evaluate the pros and cons of each of your actions(250 words)
The scenario highlights ethical concerns surrounding the potential cure for an incurable liver disease prevalent in tribal areas by repurposing a bestselling veterinary drug. The dilemma arises as the research and development required to adapt the drug for human use entails significant expenditure with limited market prospects, raising questions about the prioritization of profit over potential humanitarian benefits in the pharmaceutical industry.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a) As the CEO of the pharmaceutical company, I would have several options regarding the discovery of a potential cure for a currently incurable liver disease.
Some of the actions that I could take are
  • Pursue the development of the variant drug suitable for human beings: This action would involve investing Rs. 50 crores to develop the drug, which would be a huge expenditure for the company. However, if successful, it would have a significant positive impact on the health of the people suffering from the disease, which would be a major social responsibility fulfilled by the company.
  • Partner with the government or other companies to develop the drug: This action would involve collaborating with the government or other companies to share the expenditure of Rs. 50 crores to develop the drug. This would reduce the financial burden on the company and also allow it to fulfil its social responsibility.
  • Sell the patent for the veterinary drug to another company: This action would involve selling the patent for the veterinary drug to another company for a substantial sum of money. This would provide the company with the necessary funds to invest in research and development for the variant drug suitable for human beings.
The pros and cons of each of these actions are:
1.Pursue the development of the variant drug suitable for human beings:
  • Fulfilment of social responsibility
  • Positive impact on the health of the people suffering from the disease
  • Potential for future revenue if the drug is successful.
  • Huge expenditure of Rs. 50 crores
  • Uncertainty of success
  • Inability to recover the cost as the disease is rampant only in poverty-stricken areas.
2. Partner with the government or other companies to develop the drug:
  • Fulfilment of social responsibility,
  • Reduced financial burden on the company,
  • Collaboration with other entities for a common cause.
  • Dependency on the government or other companies.
  • Delay in the development process due to bureaucratic processes.
  • Possibility of future conflicts with partner companies.
3. Sell the patent for the veterinary drug to another company:
  • Immediate financial gain for the company
  • Investment in research and development for the variant drug suitable for human beings.
  • Potential loss of control over the development of the drug
  • Inability to fulfil social responsibility
  • Ethical concerns regarding profiting from a drug that could cure a serious disease.
In conclusion, as the CEO of the pharmaceutical company, I would need to carefully evaluate the pros and cons of each action and make a decision that balances the financial interests of the company with its social responsibility towards the people suffering from the disease.
12. There is a disaster-prone state having frequent landslides, forest fires, cloudbursts, flash floods and earthquakes, etc. Some of these are seasonal and often unpredictable. The magnitude of the disaster is always unanticipated. During one of the seasons a cloudburst caused a devastating floods and landslides leading to high casualties. There was major damage to infrastructure like roads, bridges and power generating units. This led to more than 100000 pilgrims, tourist and other locals trapped across different routes and locations. The people trapped in your area of responsibility includes senior citizens, patients in hospitals, women and children, hiker, tourist, ruling parties, regional presidents along with his family, additional chief secretary of the neighbouring state and prisoners in jail.
As a civil services officer of the state, what would be the order in which you would rescue these people and why? Give Justifications(250 words)
The scenario presents ethical concerns amidst a natural disaster, including cloudbursts, floods, and landslides, leading to the trapping of a diverse group of individuals. The crisis of conscience arises as the civil servant must prioritize and allocate resources and aid to various groups, including vulnerable individuals such as senior citizens, patients, women, children, and prisoners, while also considering the political figures and ruling parties involved, raising questions about fairness, justice, and moral obligations in times of crisis.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Ethical issues involved:
  • Ethics in public administration: The various elements of administrative ethics are neutrality, impartiality, fairness, sincerity, integrity, sense of public good, efficiency, non-partisan attitude, devotion to duty.
  • Emotional Intelligence: Emotional intelligence would help civil servant in effective utilisation of resources and to handle difficult tasks and also manage them.
  • Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others both individually and in groups and being able to see things from the point of view of others.
  • Social Skills: It is applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s. It includes building good rapport with others.
As a civil services officer, my priority would be to ensure the safety and well-being of all individuals affected by the disaster. However, given the limited resources and time, I would prioritize the rescue efforts based on the following order:
  • Patients in Hospitals: The first priority would be to evacuate patients from the hospitals as they are the most vulnerable and require immediate medical attention. They would be evacuated to nearby medical facilities with the help of helicopters, ambulances, and other medical transport services.
  • Women, Children, and Senior Citizens: The second priority would be to evacuate women, children, and senior citizens as they are at higher risk of suffering from the effects of the disaster. They would be evacuated to nearby relief camps and provided with food, water, and medical assistance.
  • Additional Chief Secretary, Ruling party and Regional Presidents: The next priority would be to evacuate high-ranking officials like the Additional Chief Secretary, Ruling party and Regional Presidents along with their families. They would be evacuated using helicopters and other emergency transport services.
  • Tourists and Pilgrims: The next priority would be to evacuate tourists and pilgrims who are stranded in the affected areas. They would be evacuated to nearby safe locations with the help of helicopters, boats, and other transport services.
  • Hikers: The next priority would be the hikers. They might have the experience to thrive in such situations.
  • Jail Inmates: The next priority would be to evacuate the inmates of the jail. As they needed to be evacuated to nearby prisons or relief camps with the help of police and other security personnel. The welfare and safety of prisoners are important, their rescue may not be prioritized over the lives of other individuals who are directly affected and face immediate danger
The above order has been determined based on the level of vulnerability and risk to life. It is important to note that the above order is a general guideline and may vary depending on the specific situation and resources available at the time of the disaster. The decisions should be made based on a careful assessment of the situation and with the advice of the local authorities and disaster management teams.
13. You are heading a district administration in a particular department. Your senior officer calls you from the State Headquarters and tells you that a plot in Rampur village is to have a building constructed on it for a school. A visit is scheduled during which he will visit the site along with the chief engineer and the senior architect. He wants you to check out all the papers relating to it and ensure that the visit is properly arranged. You examine the file which relates to the period before you joined the department. The land was acquired for the local panchayat at a nominal cost and the papers showed that clearance certificates are available for the two of the three authorities who have to certify the site’s suitability. There is no certification by the architect available on file. You decide to visit Rampur to ensure that all is in the order as stated on file. When you visit Rampur, you find that the plot under reference is a part of Thakurgarh fort and that the walls, ramparts, etc., are running across it. The fort is well away from the main village; therefore, a school here will be a serious inconvenience for the children. However, the area near the village has potential to expand into a larger residential area. The development charges on the existing plot, at the fort, will be very high and question of heritage site has not been addressed. Moreover, the Sarpanch, at the time of acquisition of the land, was a relative of your predecessor. The whole transaction appears to have been done with some vested interest.
a) List the likely vested interest of the concerned parties.
b) Some of the options for action available to you are listed below. Discuss the merits and demerits of each of the options:
  1. You can await the visit of the superior officer and let him take a decision.
  2. You can seek his advice in writing or on phone.
  3. You can consult your predecessor/ colleagues, etc, and then decide what to do.
  4. You can find out if any alternate plot can be got in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.
Can you suggest any other option with proper justifications? (250 words)
The scenario highlights ethical concerns surrounding the proposed construction of a school building in Rampur village. The acquisition of land at a nominal cost, absence of proper certifications, potential inconvenience to children, and questions of vested interests raise ethical dilemmas related to transparency, fairness, and the responsible use of public resources.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a) Likely vested interests of the concerned parties:
  • The predecessor and the Sarpanch, who was a relative of the predecessor, may have had a personal or familial vested interest in the acquisition of the land at a nominal cost
  • The architects and authorities who provided clearance certificates without properly assessing the suitability of the site may have been involved in corruption.
  • Contractors and builders involved in the construction project may have a vested interest in securing the contract for financial gains. They may have influenced the acquisition of the land to secure the project and maximize their profits.
  • Local authorities responsible for land acquisition and issuing clearances may have had vested interests in facilitating the project
  • If there are plans to expand the residential area near the village, developers or real estate agents may have a vested interest in acquiring the land at the fort and developing it for commercial purposes, thereby benefiting financially from the project.
b) Options for action:
1 ) Waiting for the superior officer to visit and make a decision:
  • Following Chain of Command: By waiting for the superior officer's visit and decision, you are adhering to the chain of command within the administrative hierarchy.
  • Expertise and Guidance: The superior officer can provide valuable insights and guidance in making an informed decision regarding the construction of the school building.
  • Transfer of responsibility and Delay in Decision-Making: Waiting for the superior officer's visit may result in a delay in making a decision. This delay can impact the timelines and planning for the project, potentially causing inconvenience to stakeholders involved.
  • Missed Opportunity for Timely Intervention: If there are clear indications of impropriety, such as the land being a part of Thakurgarh fort or potential heritage site concerns, waiting for the superior officer's visit may result in missed opportunities to address these issues promptly and mitigate potential ethical concerns
2) Seeking advice in writing or on the phone:
  • Quick Communication: Seeking advice through writing or phone allows for swift communication, enabling timely decision-making. It can help expedite the resolution of the issue and provide clarity on the course of action.
  • Documentation: Seeking advice in writing ensures a documented record of the communication, which can serve as evidence in case of any future disputes or inquiries. It helps maintain transparency, accountability, and clarity in the decision-making process.
  • Expert Guidance: The superior officer possesses experience, knowledge, and expertise in dealing with such matters. Seeking their advice can provide valuable insights, alternative perspectives, and guidance in navigating complex ethical concerns.
  • Lack of Face-to-Face Interaction: Seeking advice remotely may lack the personal touch and non-verbal cues that are present in face-to-face interactions. This can sometimes lead to miscommunication or a potential loss of nuance in understanding the situation.
  • Delayed Response: Depending on the availability and workload of the superior officer, seeking advice in writing or on the phone may result in a delayed response. This delay could impact timely decision-making and further exacerbate the existing ethical concerns.
3) Consulting with colleagues and predecessors:
  • Diverse Perspectives: Consulting with colleagues and predecessors allows for a diverse range of perspectives and experiences to be considered. This can help in gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the situation and potential solutions.
  • Institutional Memory: Colleagues and predecessors possess institutional memory and historical context that can shed light on previous similar situations or any ethical concerns that may have arisen in the past.
  • Potential Bias or Conflicting Interests: Colleagues and predecessors may have their own biases or conflicting interests that could influence their advice. It is important to critically evaluate the information received and ensure objectivity in decision-making.
  • Limited Availability of Information: Depending on the accessibility and willingness of colleagues and predecessors to share information, there may be limitations in the availability of comprehensive and accurate data.
4)  Finding an alternate plot:
  • Mitigating Ethical Concerns: Finding an alternate plot that is not part of the Thakurgarh fort and is more suitable for a school can address the ethical concerns raised in the scenario. It ensures the preservation of heritage sites and prevents inconvenience to the children in the village.
  • Promoting Convenience and Accessibility: Selecting a plot that is closer to the main village can enhance convenience and accessibility for the students attending the school.
  • Time and Resource Constraints: Finding an alternate plot may involve significant time and resource investments. This includes conducting surveys, acquiring new land, and potentially delaying the construction of the school.
Another option that can be considered is the possibility of renovating or repurposing an existing building in a more suitable location for the school. The justifications for this option are:
  • Cost-effectiveness:
  • Preservation of Heritage
  • Reduced Environmental Impact
  • Time Efficiency
In conclusion, addressing the ethical concerns surrounding the construction of a school building requires careful consideration and decision-making. It is essential to prioritize transparency, fairness, and the well-being of the stakeholders involved.

14) You are recently posted as district development officer of a district. Shortly thereafter you found that there is considerable tension in the rural areas of your district on the issue of sending girls to schools.

The elders of the village feel that many problems have come up because girls are being educated and they are stepping out of the safe environment of the household. They are of the view that the girls should be quickly married off with minimum education. The girls are also competing for jobs after education, which have traditionally remained in boys’ exclusive domain, adding to unemployment amongst male population.

The younger generation feels that in the present era, girls should have equal opportunities for education and employment, and other means of livelihood. The entire locality is divided between sexes in both generations. You come to know that in Panchayat or in other local bodies or even in busy crosswords, the issue is being acrimoniously debated.

One day you are informed that an unpleasant incident has taken place. Some girls were molested, when they were enroute to schools. The incident led to clashes between several groups and a law and order problem has arisen. The elders after heated discussion have taken a joint decision not to allow girls to go to school and to socially boycott all such families, which do not follow their dictate.

a) What steps would you take to ensure girls’ safety without disrupting their education?

b) How would you manage and mould patriarchal attitude of the village elders to ensure harmony in the inter- generational relations?(250 words)

The scenario presents an issue of tension and conflict in rural areas regarding sending girls to school. The district development officer faces ethical dilemmas concerning gender equality, traditional beliefs, social dynamics, and ensuring safety and education for all. Balancing the interests of different generations, addressing safety concerns, and promoting inclusive development are among the challenges faced by the district development officer.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

a) As the district development officer, my first priority would be to ensure the safety of the girls while allowing them to continue their education. To achieve this, I would take the following steps:
  • Address the law and order problem by ensuring prompt investigation and appropriate action against the perpetrators of the incident, sending a strong message that such behaviour will not be tolerated.
  • Collaborate with local law enforcement agencies to enhance security measures along the routes to schools, including increased police presence, installation of CCTV cameras, and regular patrolling.
  • Organize meetings with the village elders, school authorities, and parents of the girls to understand their concerns and grievances.
  • Highlight the benefits of education for both boys and girls, such as better job opportunities and improved living standards, and the importance of gender equality.
  • Set up a grievance redressal mechanism for cases of harassment or violence against girls and ensure that they are addressed promptly.
  • Conduct awareness campaigns on the importance of education for girls and the need to provide a safe and conducive environment for them to learn and grow.
  • Establish mechanisms to monitor the implementation of safety measures and evaluate their effectiveness regularly. Collect feedback from students, parents, and teachers to address any ongoing concerns and make necessary improvements.
b) Managing patriarchal attitudes of the village elders requires a nuanced approach that addresses their concerns while promoting gender equality. To achieve this, I would take the following steps:
  • Organize sensitization workshops for the village elders to help them understand the importance of gender equality and the benefits of educating girls.
  • Use role models to inspire and motivate the girls to pursue their education and demonstrate how education can improve their lives.
  • Encourage community involvement in the education of girls by setting up community-based schools and involving local women and men as teachers.
  • Foster open dialogue between the different generations and create platforms for them to share their experiences, ideas and concerns with each other.
  • Implement development projects that address the needs and aspirations of the entire community. By promoting economic opportunities, elders may see the value in girls' education as a means to uplift the entire community and ensure its long-term well-being.
Overall, my approach would be to address the concerns of the elders while promoting the education and empowerment of girls. By working collaboratively with the community, we can achieve harmony and create a safe and conducive environment for girls to learn and grow.



1. (a) All human beings aspire for happiness. Do you agree? What does happiness mean to you? Explain with examples. (150 words)
Happiness is a state of mind that is often associated with positive emotions, such as joy, contentment, and satisfaction. It is a fundamental human desire that drives people to pursue their goals and dreams.
All human beings aspire for happiness
  • All around us people try to enjoy life and that comes from their aspiration for happiness.
  • Personal Growth and Learning: Happiness can be found in the pursuit of knowledge, personal growth, and self-improvement
  • The pursuit of happiness is a fundamental aspect of human nature and is central to our motivations, desires, and actions.
    E.g.: aspirants working tirelessly to get their dream jobs.
  • Helping Others: Many individuals find happiness in acts of kindness, compassion, and helping others.
Happiness mean to me
For me, happiness means having a sense of purpose, being fulfilled in my personal and professional life, and having meaningful relationships with the people I care about. It is a feeling of inner peace and contentment that comes from living a life that aligns with my values and beliefs.
For example, spending quality time with loved ones, accomplishing a challenging task, learning something new, or engaging in a hobby that brings joy can all contribute to my sense of happiness.
Ultimately, happiness is a subjective experience that varies from person to person, and it is up to everyone to determine what brings them the most joy and fulfilment in life.
1. (b) What does ethics seek to promote in human life? Why is it all the more important in public administration? ( 150 words)
Ethics is the study of what is right or wrong in human conduct. This is a branch of Philosophy which studies moral principles.
Things that ethics seek to promote in human life
  • Ethics seeks to promote moral principles and values that guide human behaviour, including honesty, integrity, fairness, and respect for others.
  • It aims to establish a framework for making moral decisions and taking actions that are aligned with these principles and values.
  • It helps to ensure that individuals act in accordance with values that are important for human flourishing and well-being.
  • Creating credibility.
    E.g.: E Sreedharan as MD of DMRC
Importance of ethics in public administration
  • It is more important as it involves the use of public resources and the exercise of power and authority to serve the common good.
  • Public administrators have a responsibility to act in the best interests of the public and to uphold ethical standards in their decision-making and actions. Failure to do so can lead to a loss of public trust, accountability, and legitimacy.
  • Ethics helps to promote transparency, accountability, and fairness in government policies and practices.
  • It ensures that decisions are based on objective and rational criteria rather than personal interests or biases.
  • Ethical conduct can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of public services, as it promotes a culture of professionalism, responsibility, and respect for the rule of law.
Overall, ethics plays a crucial role in promoting responsible and effective public administration, and it is essential for building trust and legitimacy in government institutions.
2. (a) In the context of defence services, ‘patriotism’ demands readiness to even lay down one’s life in protecting the nation. According to you, what does patriotism imply in everyday civil life? Explain with illustrations and justify your answer. (150 words)
Patriotism implies a sense of loyalty and commitment to one's country and community. It involves a willingness to contribute to the common good and to uphold the values and principles that define the nation.
Patriotism in everyday life
  • One can demonstrate patriotism by paying taxes, which support public services and infrastructure, or by participating in peaceful protests that seek to promote social change.
  • Another way to show patriotism is by supporting local businesses and industries, which help to create jobs and stimulate economic growth.
  • Additionally, by volunteering in community service projects, one can contribute to the well-being of the community and promote social cohesion.
Overall, patriotism in civil life does not necessarily require one to lay down their life for the country, but it does require a commitment to the common good and a willingness to contribute to the betterment of society. By demonstrating patriotism in everyday actions, individuals can make a positive impact on their communities and promote a sense of unity and pride in their country.
2. (b) What do you understand by ‘probity’ in public life? What are the difficulties in practicing it in the present times? How can these difficulties be overcome? (150 words)
Probity in public life refers to the adherence to highest standards of honesty, integrity, and ethical conduct by individuals involved in public service.
It involves being transparent, accountable, and responsible in one's actions and decisions, and avoiding conflicts of interest or any behaviour that could compromise the public trust.
Difficulties in practicing Probity in the present times
  • Political pressure, bureaucratic red tape, institutional corruption, and the lack of accountability mechanisms.
  • Rapid pace of technological advancements and the increasing complexity of governance systems have made it more difficult to detect and prevent unethical behaviour in public life.
  • Corruption in society. People thinks it is the easy way to make things done
Ways to overcome these difficulties
  • Strengthen the legal and regulatory frame work like independent oversight bodies, such as ombudsmen, auditors, and anticorruption agencies
  • Promote transparency and accountability in government decision-making processes and to encourage the participation of civil society
  • Promote a culture of ethical conduct and integrity in public life through education, training, and awareness-raising campaigns.
By fostering a sense of responsibility and commitment to the public good, individuals can be encouraged to act with probity and uphold the highest standards of ethical conduct in their public service.
3. (a) “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, but knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.” What do you understand by this statement? Explain your stand with illustrations from the modern context. (150 words)
Integrity reflects the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles. This statement suggests that integrity and knowledge are both necessary components of effective decision-making and action, and that the absence of one can render the other ineffective or even harmful.
Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless
  • Scientific Integrity: In the field of science, integrity without knowledge can lead to misinformation or the promotion of pseudoscience.
    E.g.: individuals with strong moral principles but lacking scientific knowledge may make misleading claims about vaccines, climate change, or other scientific topics
  • Ethical Governance: Integrity in governance is essential, but it must be accompanied by knowledge of policy issues and understanding of the broader social and economic implications
  • Legal Justice: Judges or lawyers with strong moral principles but limited legal knowledge may make incorrect interpretations of the law or fail to consider relevant precedents, leading to unfair judgments or inadequate legal representation.
  • Media Integrity: Journalists with high ethical standards but lacking knowledge of the subject matter may inadvertently spread inaccurate information or fail to provide a comprehensive analysis, undermining the integrity and credibility of the media.
Knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful
  • Misinformation and Disinformation: Individuals with knowledge but lacking integrity can spread misinformation or engage in disinformation campaigns.
  • Financial Manipulation: Individuals with knowledge of financial systems and practices but lacking integrity can exploit their expertise for personal gain.
    E.g.: Recent NSE Scam
  • Cyber security Breaches: Knowledgeable individuals without integrity can exploit their technical expertise to carry out cybercrimes
    E.g.: Ransom wares
  • Manipulative Propaganda: Individuals with knowledge of psychological techniques and communication strategies but lacking integrity can employ manipulative propaganda tactics.
Therefore, it is essential to cultivate both knowledge and integrity in decision-making to promote the common good. In the modern context, this balance is increasingly important, given the complexity and interconnectedness of contemporary global issues and the need for informed and responsible action.

3. (b) “Human beings should always be treated as ‘ends’ in themselves and never as merely `means’.” Explain the meaning and significance of this statement, giving its implications in the modern techno-economic society. (150 words)

The statement reflects the ethical principle known as the "principle of respect for persons." This principle, often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant, emphasizes that individuals should be valued and respected for their intrinsic worth and dignity, rather than being used solely as a means to achieve someone else's goals or ends.
Beings should always be treated as ‘ends’ in themselves and never as merely means
  • Respectful Employment Practices: Treating employees as ends in themselves means recognizing their dignity and ensuring fair and respectful treatment in the workplace.
  • Inclusive Education: Applying the principle of respect for persons in education means treating students as ends in themselves, valuing their unique abilities, needs, and perspectives
  • Privacy and Data Protection: Respecting individuals as ends involves safeguarding their privacy and protecting their personal data.
  • Criminal Justice System: Treating individuals as ends in themselves within the criminal justice system means upholding their rights, ensuring fair trials, and avoiding the use of excessive force or degrading treatment.
Implications of the statement in the modern techno-economic society
  • Human-Centered Technological Development: In a society driven by technological advancements, the statement emphasizes the need to prioritize human well-being and the protection of individual rights and autonomy.
  • Ethical Use of Data and Artificial Intelligence: With the rise of big data and artificial intelligence (AI), the statement underscores the importance of using these technologies in an ethical and responsible manner
  • Consumer Protection and Marketing Ethics: The principle of respect for persons emphasizes the importance of protecting consumers from manipulative or deceptive marketing practices.
  • Social Equality and Justice: In a techno-economic society, the principle has implications for promoting social equality and justice.
Therefore, it is essential to uphold human rights and promote ethical behaviour in all aspects of society. This includes promoting fair labour practices, protecting workers' rights, and preventing exploitation and discrimination.
Overall, the principle of treating human beings as ends in themselves is essential for promoting ethical behaviour and ensuring that individuals are valued and respected in the modern techno-economic society.

4. (a) Which eminent personality has inspired you the most in the context of ethical conduct in life? Give the gist of his/her teachings. Giving specific examples, describe how you have been able to apply these teachings for your own ethical development. (150 words)

Swami Vivekananda, is a great personality who has inspired and guided me to behave in ethical manner. His teachings about service, love, humanity and religion have deeply inspired me.
Gist of his/her teachings
  • As through his teaching that “service to man is service to god” I came to know about true meaning of service. Moreover, Vivekananda has inspired me, by making me aware of my weaknesses and guided me to get rid of them because he believed one should not be weak as weakness is a sin.
  • Vivekananda was a rationalist, thus rather than presenting supernatural image of god, he introduced world to true meaning of Vedanta and its philosophy which guides the humanity towards love and unity.
Application of these teachings for my own ethical development
Most importantly, as a civil service aspirant, Vivekananda helped me in understanding my duty towards downtrodden, making me realise that we all are one i.e. Parmatan and until we all are not happy everyone remains miserable.
Vivekananda was true patriot which reflects in Rabindranath Tagore’s comment “If you want to know India, Study Vivekananda”.
4. (b) There is a heavy ethical responsibility on the public servants because they Occupy positions of power handle huge amounts of public funds, and their decisions have wide-ranging impact on society and environment. What steps have you taken to improve your ethical competence to handle such responsibility? (150 words)
Public servants are the implementing agencies of the government. Public servants hold a great responsibility to serve the public interest with integrity and ethical conduct.
Ethical responsibility on the public servants
  • Integrity and Honesty: Public servants should act with honesty, transparency, and integrity, upholding ethical standards.
    E.g.: A public servant refusing to accept bribes
  • Confidentiality and Privacy: Public servants must maintain confidentiality and protect the privacy of individuals' personal information.
    E.g.: A public servant handling sensitive financial decisions
  • Ethical Leadership: Public servants in leadership roles have a responsibility to model ethical behaviour, foster an ethical culture, and hold others accountable for their actions.
A public servant must remain ethical in his/her conduct, for this,
Taken following steps to improve my ethical competence:
  • I maintain integrity in my conduct.
  • I am always ready to be held accountable for my actions.
  • I try to remain honest in my public as well as private life.
  • I try to remain conscious and empathetic about the problems of others.
  • I try to avoid conflict of interest.
  • I do not use public resources for personal gains.
  • I have maintained a positive attitude towards hard work
  • I am eager to learn and take criticisms constructively
Overall, public servants have a great responsibility to serve the public interest with integrity and ethical conduct. By taking steps to improve their ethical competence, they can ensure that their decisions and actions have a positive impact on society and the environment.

5. (a) The current society is plagued with widespread trust-deficit. What are the consequences of this situation for personal well-being and for societal well-being? What can you do at the personal level to make yourself trustworthy? (150 words)

Trust is an essential element of social interaction, without which human relationships cannot flourish. When trust is lacking, individuals feel insecure, and societies become fragmented.
Consequences of trust deficit on personal and societal well-being
  • Diminished Relationships and Social Cohesion: A trust deficit erodes relationships, leading to social fragmentation and isolation.
  • Economic Consequences: A trust deficit can lead to reduced investment, slower economic growth, and hindered entrepreneurial activities.
    E.g.: In countries with a high level of corruption and a trust deficit, investors may hesitate to invest, hindering economic development and job creation.
  • Weakened Institutions and Governance: trust deficit erodes public trust in government institutions, compromising effective policy implementation and citizen participation.
    E.g.: Instances of government corruption or scandals can lead to a trust deficit
  • Health and Well-being Impacts: Trust is essential in healthcare systems, as it underpins effective doctor-patient relationships, compliance with medical advice, and access to quality care. A trust deficit can lead to health disparities and compromised well-being.
Ways to make yourself trustworthy in personal level
  • Honesty: Be truthful and transparent in your words and actions. Avoid deception, exaggeration, or withholding important information.
  • Reliability: Keep your promises and commitments. Follow through on your responsibilities and obligations.
  • Confidentiality: Respect the confidentiality of others and keep private information secure. Avoid sharing sensitive or personal information without consent.
  • Accountability: Take ownership of your mistakes and accept responsibility for your actions. Apologize when necessary and make amends when possible.
  • Empathy: Show understanding and compassion towards others' feelings and experiences. Demonstrate empathy by actively listening and supporting others when they need it.
Overall, building trust requires a commitment to ethical behaviour and a willingness to engage with others in an open and honest manner.
5. (b)  It is often said that poverty leads to corruption. However, there is no dearth of instances where affluent and powerful people indulge in corruption in a big way. What are the basic causes of corruption among people? Support your answer with examples. (150 words)
Corruption is a complex issue that has many causes, and poverty is just one of them. While poverty can create conditions that make corruption more likely, such as lack of access to basic resources and services, corruption can also occur among affluent and powerful individuals.
The basic causes of corruption among people
  • Lack of accountability and transparency in government institutions and private organizations.
    E.g.: Bribery and embezzlement in government procurement processes
  • Greed and self-interest over public interest – people tempted to engage in corrupt activities.
    E.g.: Public officials accepting bribes or kickbacks in exchange for preferential treatment or contracts.
  • Weak Legal and Regulatory Frameworks: Inadequate laws, regulations, and enforcement mechanisms create opportunities for corruption.
    E.g.: Failure to prosecute corrupt individuals or lax penalties for corruption offenses.
  • Lack of ethical values: When individuals lack strong ethical values, they may be more likely to engage in corrupt activities.
    E.g.: Business professionals engaging in fraud or insider trading for personal financial gain.
While poverty can be a contributing factor to corruption, corruption can be found across all segments of society. It is essential to address the underlying causes to eliminate corruption and promote ethical behaviour.

6. What factors affect the formation of a person’s attitude towards social problems? In our society, contrasting attitudes are prevalent about many social problems. What contrasting attitudes do you notice about the caste system in our society? How do you explain the existence of these contrasting attitudes? (150 words)

Attitudes are views, beliefs, or evaluations of people about something (the attitude object). The attitude object can be a person, place, thing, ideology, or an event. Attitudes can be positive or negative.
Factors affect the formation of a person’s attitude towards social problems
  • Personal Values and Beliefs: Individual values related to fairness, justice, equality, or personal responsibility can influence how someone perceives and responds to social issues.
    E.g.: take part in pride march to show empathy with LGBTQ community
  • Upbringing and Socialization: Family, cultural background, and social environment during childhood and adolescence shape a person's attitudes.
    E.g.: secular ideals in APJ Abdul Kalam
  • Media Influence: Mass media, including news outlets, social media platforms, and entertainment, can shape attitudes towards social problems.
    E.g.: Delhi rape case and associated campaigns
  • Global Events and Public Discourse: Significant events, such as natural disasters, conflicts, or social movements, can influence public discourse and shape attitudes towards social problems.
    E.g.: Fridays For Future movement by Greta Thunberg
Contrasting attitudes about the caste system in our society
  • Cultural Preservation: Some individuals may view the caste system as an integral part of their cultural heritage and advocate for its preservation as a means to maintain traditional practices and social order.
  • Social Hierarchy: Supporters of the caste system argue that it provides a structured social hierarchy that ensures stability, order, and the division of labour in society.
  • Identity and Community Pride: Some individuals may feel a sense of pride and identity associated with their caste, viewing it as an integral part of their personal and community identity.
  • Caste-Based Discrimination: Critics of the caste system highlight the inherent discrimination and oppression it perpetuates, with individuals being marginalized and denied equal rights and opportunities based on their caste.
Factors responsible for these contrasting attitudes
  • Cultural conditioning: The caste system has been a part of Indian culture for centuries, and many people have been conditioned to view it as a natural and acceptable social structure.
  • Religious beliefs: The caste system is deeply rooted in Hindu religious beliefs and practices, and some people view it as a religious obligation to maintain caste distinctions.
  • Economic factors: Some people may view it as a way to maintain economic advantages or protect their interests.
  • Education and awareness: People who are more educated and aware of the negative consequences of the caste system may be more likely to reject it, while those who are less educated may be more likely to support it.
Overall, the existence of contrasting attitudes towards the caste system reflects the complexity of social issues and the diversity of perspectives within society. To address these issues, it is important to promote education, awareness, and dialogue, and to work towards creating a more equitable and just society for all.
7. What does ‘accountability’ mean in the context of public service? What measures can be adopted to ensure individual and collective accountability of public servants? (150 words)
Accountability in the context of public service refers to the obligation of public servants to take responsibility for their actions and decisions, and to be answerable to the public for the outcomes of their work.
It is an essential element of good governance and ensures that public officials act in the best interests of the public and are held accountable for their actions.
Measures to ensure individual and collective accountability of public servants
  • Performance evaluation: their performance should be linked to rewards and penalties.
  • Code of conduct: outlines their responsibilities, ethical standards, and expectations for behaviour.
  • Transparency and public participation: Public servants should operate in a transparent manner, and the public should have the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes.
  • Whistle-blower protection: who report wrongdoing by public servants.
  • Independent oversight: ombudsmen and audit institutions, should be established to monitor the actions of public servants and hold them accountable for their actions.
Overall, individual and collective accountability is crucial to ensuring the integrity and effectiveness of public service, and measures should be taken to promote and enforce accountability at all levels of government.
8. We are witnessing increasing instances of sexual violence against women in the country. Despite existing legal provisions against it, the number of such incidences is on the rise. Suggest some innovative measures to tackle this menace. (150 words)
According to NCRB data, Every 16 minutes, a woman is raped somewhere in India, and every four minutes woman experiences cruelty at the hands of her in-laws.
Existing legal provisions against sexual violence against women
  • Maternity Benefit Act 1961
  • The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
  • Indian Penal Code: Section 354 and 509
  • Amendments to Criminal Law 1983
  • Protection of Women against Sexual Harassment at Workplace act, 2010
Reasons for sexual violence against women
  • Patriarchal mentality
  • communal & caste disputes
  • use of intoxicants
  • Poor safety and security of women.
Innovative measures to tackle this menace
  • Educate men and boys: Gender-sensitivity and respectful behaviour like good-bad touch
  • Create safe spaces: Public spaces such as streets, parks, and public transport need to be made safer through improved lighting, security measures, and public awareness campaigns. Pink patrolling
  • Use technology: Innovative solutions such as panic buttons, mobile apps, and GPS-enabled tracking systems can be used to enhance the safety of women.
  • Empower women: Women's empowerment can be promoted through education, training, and employment opportunities, as well as by creating support networks.
  • Strengthen law enforcement: more women in police, 24X7 women police stations, and gender sensitisation of police.
  • Address cultural attitudes: Addressing cultural attitudes that contribute to the objectification and marginalization of women is necessary to create a more equal and just society.
Overall, addressing sexual violence against women requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, technology, law enforcement, and cultural change.


9. In the following questions, carefully study the cases presented and then answer the questions that follow:
Now-a-days, there is an increasing thrust on economic development all around the globe. At the same time, there is also an increasing concern about environmental degradation caused by development. Many a time, we face a direct conflict between developmental activity and environmental quality. It is neither feasible to stop or curtail the developmental process, nor it is advisable to keep degrading the environment, as it threatens our very survival.
Discuss some feasible strategies which could be adopted to eliminate this conflict and which could lead to sustainable development.(250 words)
The scenario highlights the ongoing dilemma between economic development and environmental conservation, where the pursuit of development often conflicts with the need to protect the environment. This presents ethical dilemmas as we face the challenge of balancing economic progress with the preservation of natural resources and the well-being of future generations, raising questions about sustainability, responsibility, and the long-term impact of our actions.
Stakeholders involved in this case are:

Some feasible strategies which could be adopted to eliminate this conflict and which could lead to sustainable development  
  • Adopting green technologies: The use of green technologies such as renewable energy sources, energy-efficient systems, and waste management technologies can help reduce environmental degradation while promoting economic growth.
  • Implementing strict regulations: Governments can implement strict regulations and laws that enforce environmental protection measures and ensure that industries and businesses comply with them. This can help in reducing the negative impact of developmental activities on the environment.
  • Encouraging sustainable practices: Promoting sustainable practices such as reusing, recycling, and reducing waste can help reduce environmental degradation while promoting economic growth.
  • Public participation: Encouraging public participation in decision-making processes can help identify and address environmental concerns while ensuring economic growth.
  • Corporate social responsibility: Encouraging businesses to adopt sustainable practices and engage in corporate social responsibility can help reduce their impact on the environment.
  • Education and awareness: Educating people about the importance of environmental protection and sustainable development can help create a more environmentally conscious society.
  • International cooperation: Encouraging international cooperation and collaboration on environmental issues can help create a more sustainable future.
In conclusion, upholding ethical principles for a sustainable future requires embracing responsibility, equity and justice, transparency and accountability, and long-term thinking. By prioritizing these principles, we can strive for a harmonious balance between economic development and environmental conservation, ensuring the well-being of present and future generations.
10)  Suppose one of your close friends, who is also aspiring for civil services, comes to you for discussing some of the issues related to ethical conduct in public service. He raises the following points:
(i) In the present times, when unethical environment is quite prevalent, individual attempts to stick to ethical principles may cause a lot of problems in one’s career. It may also cause hardship to the family members as well as risk to one’s life. Why should we not be pragmatic and follow the path of least resistance, and be happy with doing whatever good we can?
(ii) When so many people are adopting wrong means and are grossly harming the system, what difference would it make if only a small minority tries to be ethical? They are going to be rather ineffective and are bound to get frustrated.
(iii) If we become fussy about ethical considerations, will it not hamper the economic progress of our country? After all, in the present age of high competition, we cannot afford to be left behind in the race of development.
(iv) It is understandable that we should not get involved in grossly unethical practices, but giving and accepting small gratifications and doing small favours increases everybody’s motivation. It also makes the system more efficient. What is wrong in adopting such practices?
Critically analyse the above viewpoints. On the basis of this analysis, what will be your advice to your friend? (250 words)
The case study is about an individual who faces ethical dilemmas in public service, considering the potential risks to their career, family, and personal safety amidst a prevalent unethical environment. They question the effectiveness of ethical behaviour when many others adopt wrong means, and express concerns about hampering economic progress and the acceptance of small gratifications and favours in the system.
(i) It is true that the unethical environment is prevalent, but that cannot be a justification for not following ethical principles. Ethical behaviour should not depend on the situation or circumstances, but should be a way of life. It may cause some problems in the short run, but in the long run, it will help in building a better society. Also, compromising on ethics can be detrimental to one's own self-respect and integrity.
(ii) It is a fact that a small minority of ethical individuals may not be able to change the system overnight, but it is essential to realize that every small step counts. The impact of ethical behaviour may not be visible immediately, but it will have a positive impact on the society in the long run. The point is not to give up on ethical principles just because they may not have an immediate impact, but to keep working towards building a better system.
(iii) It is a misconception that being ethical will hamper the economic progress of the country. In fact, ethical behaviour is essential for sustainable economic development. Ethical practices ensure transparency, accountability, and fairness, which are essential for building a healthy and stable economic system. Shortcuts and unethical practices may provide temporary gains, but in the long run, they will harm the economy and society.
(iv) Accepting or giving small gratifications may seem harmless, but it is a slippery slope. Small unethical practices can lead to bigger unethical practices, and it is essential to draw a line and stick to ethical principles. The argument that such practices make the system more efficient is flawed, as it is the responsibility of the system to provide the necessary infrastructure and resources to make the system efficient, not the responsibility of individuals to indulge in unethical practices.
The discussion thus highlights the need for ethics in public service despite the arguments raised. Ethical conduct in public service is essential to maintain trust, integrity, and accountability in governance. It ensures fairness, upholds the common good, and contributes to the long-term sustainable development of the nation, outweighing the challenges and temptations presented by an unethical environment.
11) You are a no-nonsense, honest officer. You have been transferred to a remote district to head a department that is notorious for its inefficiency and callousness. You find that the main cause of the poor state of affairs is the indiscipline of a section of employees. They do not work themselves and also disrupt the working of others. You first warned the troublemakers to mend their ways or else face disciplinary action. When the warning had little effect, you issued a show cause notice to the ringleaders. As a retaliatory measure, these troublemakers instigated a woman employee amongst them to file a complaint of sexual harassment against you with the Women’s Commission. The Commission promptly seeks your explanation. The matter is also publicized in the’ media to embarrass you further. Some of the options to handle this situation could be as follows:
(i) Give your explanation to the Commission and go soft on the disciplinary action.
(ii) Ignore the Commission and proceed firmly with the disciplinary action.
(iii) Brief your higher-ups seek directions from them and act accordingly.
Suggest any other possible option(s). Evaluate all of them and suggest the best course of action, giving your reasons for it. (250 words)
The situation at hand presents a complex challenge where an honest officer is being targeted by a group of indiscipline employees through false allegations of sexual harassment. Stakeholders involved in this case are:
The available options to handle this situation are as follows:
  • Giving an explanation to the Women’s Commission and going soft on disciplinary action: This option is not advisable as it may be perceived as a compromise on ethics and a weak response to the situation. It may also set a wrong precedent for other employees to follow and continue with their indiscipline without addressing root cause.
  • Ignoring the Commission and proceeding firmly with the disciplinary action: This option is not recommended as it may be perceived as a disregard for the legal process and due diligence. It may also harm the officer's reputation and make it difficult for the officer to work with the employees in the future.
  • Briefing higher-ups and seeking directions from them: This option is a plausible one, but it may take time to receive guidance from higher-ups. In the meantime, the officer's reputation may be tarnished, and the indiscipline may continue.
  • Filing a defamation suit against the accusers: This option may be appropriate as it helps to defend the officer's reputation and sends a message that false allegations will not be tolerated. However, it may lead to further legal complications and may not solve the issue of indiscipline in the department.
The best course of action would be to gather evidence and prepare a strong case to defend against the false allegations. At the same time, the officer should continue with the disciplinary action against the troublemakers, ensuring due process is followed. The officer should also reach out to higher-ups for guidance and support in handling the situation. This course of action ensures that the officer upholds ethical principles, respects due process, and is transparent in their dealings with the public. It also sends a message that indiscipline and false allegations will not be tolerated, and strengthens the officer's reputation as an honest and diligent public servant.
In such a challenging situation, upholding ethical values is of utmost importance in public service. It requires demonstrating integrity, fairness, and accountability throughout the process. Despite the retaliatory measures and attempts to tarnish one's reputation, it is crucial to remain steadfast in truth, ensure due process, and prioritize the well-being and dignity of all individuals involved. Upholding ethical values serves as a guiding principle in navigating such difficult circumstances, maintaining trust in public service, and promoting a just and transparent system.
12) Suppose you are the CEO of a company that manufactures specialized electronic equipment used by a government department. You have submitted your bid for the supply of this equipment to the department. Both the quality and cost of your offer are better than those of the competitors. Yet the concerned officer is demanding a hefty bribe for approving the tender. Getting the order is important both for you and for your company. Not getting the order would mean closing a production line. It may also affect your own career. However, as a value-conscious person, you do not want to give bribe.
Valid arguments can be advanced both for giving the bribe and getting the order, and for refusing to pay the bribe and risking the loss of the order. What those arguments could be? Could there be any better way to get out of this dilemma? If so, outline the main elements of this third way, pointing out its merits. (250 words)
The CEO faces significant ethical dilemmas in the situation, where securing a government tender requires giving a hefty bribe to a concerned officer. While the order is crucial for the company's success and the CEO's career, their strong values and commitment to integrity make them reluctant to engage in corrupt practices. Balancing professional interests with ethical principles poses a complex moral challenge for the CEO.

Stakeholders involved in this case are:

The situation presented poses a moral dilemma for the CEO, as both giving in to the bribe demand and refusing to pay it have their own valid arguments.
Arguments for giving the bribe and getting the order:
  • Financial gain: Giving the bribe may secure the order and ensure the financial stability and growth of the company. It can protect jobs and livelihoods of employees.
  • Competitive advantage: Winning the order can strengthen the company's position in the market and enhance its reputation, leading to future business opportunities.
Arguments for refusing to pay the bribe and risking the loss of the order:
  • Ethical integrity: refusing to participate in corrupt practices is crucial for personal and organizational integrity. It maintains trust with stakeholders and preserves a positive reputation.
  • Long-term sustainability: the company can demonstrate a commitment to fair business practices and attract ethical partners, customers.
However, there could be a better way to get out of this dilemma, which involves taking a principled stance and utilizing legal options. The CEO could gather evidence of the bribe demand and report it to the relevant authorities, such as the Anti-Corruption Bureau or the CBI. This would not only expose the corrupt officer but also protect the company's reputation. The CEO could also seek the assistance of a lawyer to explore legal options and take the matter to court if necessary.    
The merits of this approach are many.
  1. Firstly, it upholds ethical values and prevents the company from engaging in corrupt practices.
  2. Secondly, it sends a strong message to the corrupt officer and others involved in such practices that such behaviour will not be tolerated.
  3. Thirdly, it protects the company's reputation and prevents any negative consequences that may arise from engaging in corrupt activities.
  4. Fourthly, it sets an example for other companies to follow and encourages a culture of ethical business practices.
In conclusion, upholding ethical values is paramount in situations where corrupt practices are demanded, even when significant professional and personal interests are at stake. Integrity, honesty, and a commitment to ethical conduct are essential in maintaining trust, fostering a fair business environment, and working towards the greater good. By refusing to engage in bribery and seeking alternative solutions, individuals can contribute to the dismantling of corruption and promote a culture of integrity and transparency in business and society.
13. Rameshwar successfully cleared the prestigious civil services examination and was excited about the opportunity that he would get through the civil services to serve the country. However, soon after joining the services, he realized that things are not as rosy as he had imagined.
He found a number of malpractices prevailing in the department assigned to him. For example, funds under various schemes and grants were being misappropriated. The official facilities were frequently being used for personal needs by the officers and staff. After some time, he noticed that the process of recruiting the staff was also not up to the mark. Prospective candidates were required to write an examination in which a lot of cheating was going on. Some candidates were provided external help in the examination. Rameshwar brought these incidents to the notice of his seniors. However, he was advised to keep his eyes, ears and mouth shut and ignore all these things which were taking place with the connivance of the higher-ups. Rameshwar felt highly disillusioned and uncomfortable. He comes to you seeking your advice.
Indicate various options that you think are available in this situation. How would You help him to evaluate these options and choose the most appropriate path to be adopted? (250 words)
Rameshwar is facing a dilemma where he has discovered several malpractices in his department but is being advised to stay silent by his superiors. This is affecting his ethical and moral principles. There is a crisis of conscience taking place regarding whether to follow the seniors or to uphold his principles.
There are several options available to him, and he must carefully evaluate each one before making a decision:
Options available
  • Speak up and report the malpractices to higher authorities: This is a risky option as it can lead to backlash from his superiors and colleagues. However, it is also the most ethical and effective way to bring about change. Rameshwar must weigh the risks involved and decide if he is willing to face the consequences of his actions.
  • Quit the job and look for other opportunities: This option allows Rameshwar to remove himself from the situation entirely. However, it is not a practical solution, and he may face similar issues in other workplaces.
  • Stay silent and continue working: This option allows Rameshwar to avoid confrontation and maintain his job security. However, it also means that he is indirectly supporting the malpractices and going against his own values.
To evaluate these options, Rameshwar should consider his personal values and the impact of his actions on the society. He should also evaluate the potential consequences of each option and the risks involved. Ultimately, Rameshwar should choose the option that aligns with his values and has the greatest potential to bring about positive change.
In this situation, the most appropriate path for Rameshwar would be to speak up and report the malpractices to higher authorities. He should document the evidence and approach the appropriate authorities in a professional and diplomatic manner. Rameshwar must also be prepared to face any backlash or consequences of his actions. This option aligns with his values and has the potential to bring about positive change in the department. Additionally, he can also seek guidance and support from NGOs or other organizations that work towards promoting integrity and ethics in public service.
In conclusion, promoting ethics in civil services is essential to ensure transparency, accountability, and the efficient functioning of government departments. Upholding integrity, reporting malpractices, and advocating for ethical conduct are crucial in fostering a culture of honesty, fairness, and public service. Individuals like Rameshwar should stand firm in their commitment to ethics, challenging wrongdoings and working towards positive change for the betterment of the country.
14.  In our country, the migration of rural people to towns and cities is increasing drastically. This is causing serious problems both in the rural as well as in the urban areas. In fact, things are becoming really unmanageable. Can you analyse this problem in detail and indicate not only the socio-economic but also the emotional and attitudinal factors responsible for this problem? Also, distinctly bring out why
(a) Educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas;
(b) Landless poor people are migrating to urban slums;
(c) Even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas taking up petty jobs.
What feasible steps can you suggest which will be effective in controlling this serious problem of our country? (250 words)
The problem of rural-urban migration in India is a complex one, with various socio-economic, emotional, and attitudinal factors contributing to it.
Some of the major reasons for this migration
  • Education: Many educated rural youth see limited job opportunities in their hometowns and villages, and hence, move to urban areas in search of better job prospects and career growth.
  • Poverty: Landless poor people, who are unable to make a livelihood in their villages due to lack of land or other economic opportunities, migrate to urban slums in search of employment and better living conditions.
  • Agrarian distress: Farmers who face difficulties in sustaining themselves due to crop failures, debt burden, and other agrarian problems, sell off their land and move to urban areas in the hope of finding employment in the non-agricultural sector.
Apart from these, there are emotional and attitudinal factors that contribute to rural-urban migration, such as
  • A desire for a better standard of living
  • Better education for children
  • Exposure to urban lifestyles and aspirations
  • The perception that urban areas offer better social status and prestige.
  • Peer pressure and the desire to conform to perceived urban lifestyles contribute to migration.
  • Dissatisfaction with the limitations of rural life, including lack of social mobility, conservative social norms, and limited exposure to diverse experiences
Reasons for migration in the specific context of
  • Educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas:
    • Lack of opportunity in rural areas
    • Poor monetary returns from rural areas
    • Poor Infrastructure needed for lifestyle and jobs.
    • Social mobility
  • Landless poor people are migrating to urban slums:
    • Fragmented land structures
    • Mechanised farming practices
    • Lucrative hopes from urban cities
  • Even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas taking up petty jobs.
    • Low monetary return from the farm produce.
    • High incidents of crop failure
    • Climate change related issues.
    • Lack of availability of workers
    To address this problem, some feasible steps that can be suggested are
    • Creation of employment opportunities in rural areas: The government can invest in infrastructure development, setting up of small and medium enterprises, and promotion of agriculture-based industries to create job opportunities in rural areas.
    • Improving the quality of education: The quality of education in rural areas needs to be improved so that educated youth do not feel the need to migrate to urban areas in search of better educational opportunities.
    • Strengthening social security measures: The government can provide social security measures like health care, insurance, and pension schemes to help rural people meet their basic needs and reduce the need for migration.
    • Land reforms: Land reforms that enable small and marginal farmers to have better access to land, credit, and other resources can help reduce agrarian distress and the consequent migration.
    • Regulating urbanization: The government can regulate urbanization by implementing land-use policies, promoting sustainable urban development, and providing basic amenities like housing, water, sanitation, and transport in urban areas to control the flow of rural-urban migration.
    In conclusion, the problem of rural-urban migration in India requires a multi-faceted approach that addresses the socio-economic, emotional, and attitudinal factors that contribute to it. A combination of these feasible steps can help in controlling this serious problem and create a more balanced and equitable development across the country.



    1. What do you understand by ‘Values’ and ‘Ethics’? In what way is it important to be ethical along with being professionally competent? (150 words)
    Values refer to the beliefs and principles that individuals hold dear and guide their behaviour, decision-making, and actions.
    Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with moral principles and standards of behaviour, and how they apply to individuals and society. It is the application of values.
    • E.g.: Honesty is a value. Speaking truthfully is ethics.
    Professionally competency is the ability to do a task efficiently.
    Importance of being ethical along with being professionally competent
    • Ethics ensures accountability for their actions and that they maintain the trust and respect of others.
      E.g.: A P J Abdul Kalam
    • Ensures that professionals act in the best interests of their clients and the society at large. A person with poor ethics and high competency may use his/her competency for wrong ends.
      E.g.: unethical doctor engaging in organ trading.
    • It helps to build a strong reputation, fosters long-term relationships, and creates a positive work culture.
      E.g.: T N Sheshan in Election commission
    Furthermore, in a world that is increasingly interconnected and interdependent, ethical behaviour is essential for promoting harmony and cooperation among individuals and communities.
    2.(a) What do you understand by the following terms in the context of public service?
    • Integrity
    • Perseverance
    • Spirit of Service
    • Commitment
    • Courage of Conviction
    (250 words)
    • Integrity refers to the quality of being consistent in values like honesty, respectful and transparency in one's actions and behaviour, and upholding moral and ethical principles.
    • In the context of public service, integrity is a fundamental requirement for building trust and credibility with the public and ensuring that the public interest is served.
      E.g.: Ashok Khemka IAS
    • Perseverance is the quality of persisting in a task or goal despite challenges and obstacles.
    • In the context of public service, perseverance is important for achieving long-term goals and making a positive impact on society, even in the face of resistance or setbacks.
      E.g.: implementing schemes for removing open defecation or improving the sex ratio in a district are goals that cannot be achieved overnight. Civil servants have to persevere if they honestly believe that the current policy/scheme is the best way to achieve desired goals
    Spirit of Service
    • Spirit of service refers to the attitude and motivation to serve the public and society at large.
    • In the context of public service, it is important to have a genuine spirit of service and a desire to improve the lives of the citizens, rather than seeking personal gain or advancement.
      E.g.: Armstrong Pame making roads
    • Commitment refers to the dedication and determination to fulfil responsibilities and obligations.
    • In the context of public service, commitment is necessary for ensuring that the public interest is upheld and that promises made to the citizens are fulfilled.
      E.g.: civil servant working 24*7 during disasters
    Courage of Conviction
    • Courage of conviction refers to the courage and strength to stand up for one's beliefs and principles, even in the face of opposition or criticism.
    • In the context of public service, it is important to have the courage of conviction to take unpopular decisions that may be necessary for the public good.
      E.g.: whistle blowers
    In conclusion, these qualities are essential for individuals in public service to uphold the trust and confidence of the public and to make a positive impact on society.
    2. (b) Indicate two more attributes which you consider important for public service. Justify your answer. (150 words)
    Two additional attributes that are important for public service are empathy and innovation.
    • Empathy refers to the ability to understand and share the feelings of others.
    • In the context of public service, empathy is important for understanding the needs and concerns of the citizens and ensuring that policies and programs are designed to meet their needs.
    • It also helps in building trust and rapport with the public and creating a sense of shared purpose.
      E.g.:operation sulaimani’ by Prashant Nair IAS
    • Innovation refers to the ability to think creatively and develop new and better ways of doing things.
    • In the context of public service, innovation is important for identifying and addressing new challenges and opportunities, improving efficiency and effectiveness, and ensuring that public services are delivered in a timely and cost-effective manner.
      E.g.: Mirzapur S P Ashish Tiwari IPS adopted a ramshackle village school and refurbished it completely to resemble a bright yellow school bus.
    Empathy ensures that public servants remain connected to the needs of the citizens they serve, and innovation ensures that they can adapt to changing circumstances and deliver services in a way that meets the evolving needs of the public.
    In today's rapidly changing world, these attributes are critical for public servants to be successful in achieving their goals and making a positive impact on society.
    3. Some people feel that values keep changing with time and situation, while others strongly believe that there are certain universal and eternal human values. Give your perception in this regard with due justification. (150 words)
    Values are enduring belief system which guides people’s behaviour. Such values are acquired on the basis of socialization, knowledge, awareness, experiences etc
    Values keep changing with time and situation
    • Gender Equality: In many societies, there has been a shift towards valuing gender equality and challenging traditional gender roles.
    • Values and attitudes towards sexual orientation and gender identity have evolved significantly in recent years.
      E.g.: LGBTQ rights
    • Environmental Consciousness: With growing concerns about climate change and sustainability, there has been a shift in values towards environmental consciousness.
    • Work-Life Balance: In response to changing work patterns and increased focus on well-being, there has been a shift in values towards achieving a healthier work-life balance.
      E.g.: Staycations by IT companies
    On the other hand, there are certain values that seem to be deeply ingrained in human nature, such as compassion, honesty, and respect for others.
    Certain universal and eternal human values
    • Respect: Valuing the dignity and worth of every individual, treating others with consideration, and recognizing their rights and autonomy.
    • Compassion: Showing empathy, kindness, and concern for the suffering of others, and taking actions to alleviate their pain or distress.
    • Honesty: Being truthful, sincere, and transparent in one's words, actions, and intentions.
    • Justice: Upholding fairness, equality, and the protection of rights for all individuals, and ensuring that actions and decisions are guided by impartiality.
    In conclusion, while values may be subject to change and variation to allow for social reform, there are certain universal and eternal human values that are essential for a just and harmonious society to exist.
    4) What is ‘emotional intelligence’ and how can it be developed in people? How does it help an individual in taking ethical decisions?(150 words)
    Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage one's own emotions and the emotions of others. It involves skills such as empathy, self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, and social skills. Developing emotional intelligence can lead to better communication, stronger relationships, and improved decision-making.

    Ways to develop emotional intelligence
    • Practicing mindfulness and self-reflection
    • Improving communication skills, such as active listening and assertiveness
    • Seeking feedback from others and using it constructively
    • Practicing empathy by trying to understand others' perspectives and emotions
    • Managing stress through healthy habits like exercise and meditation.
    • Being open to experiences and developing positive thinking
    Emotional intelligence helps individuals make ethical decisions
    • Empathy: Emotional intelligence involves understanding and experiencing emotions in others, which can foster empathy. Empathy allows individuals to consider the perspectives and feelings of others when making decisions
    • Moral Sensitivity: Emotional intelligence enhances an individual's ability to recognize moral dilemmas and ethical implications in a given situation.
    • Relationship Building: Emotional intelligence facilitates the development of strong relationships and effective communication.
    • Conflict Resolution: Emotional intelligence equips individuals with skills to handle conflicts constructively.
    In short, emotional intelligence is a critical skill for ethical decision-making, and it can be developed through intentional effort and practice.
    5) (a) What do you understand by the term ‘voice of conscience’? How do you prepare yourself to heed to the voice of conscience? (150 words)
    The "voice of conscience" refers to an inner sense of right and wrong that guides a person's moral decision-making. It is often described as an internal voice or feeling that urges a person to act in accordance with their ethical principles and values.
    It happens in the time of crisis when a person faces dilemma. In such situations, his conscience does not allow him to go on wrong path. He maintains his values and directs one’s behaviour based on own conscience.
    Ways to prepare oneself to heed the voice of conscience
    • Cultivate self-awareness through reflection and mindfulness.
    • Pausing and thinking about the dimensions of issue and practicing the power of silence.
    • Meditating and prayer.
    • Freeing one from external influences and selfish interests.
    • Ensuring that the inner voice is not based on prejudice, incorrect knowledge and irrationality.
    It is also important to clarify one's values and beliefs, and to stay attuned to one's emotional reactions to situations. By doing so, one can become more attuned to the signals of one's conscience and more able to act in accordance with them.
    5. (b)    What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? Narrate one incident in your life when you were faced with such a crisis and how you resolved the same. (150 words)
    A "crisis of conscience" occurs when a person is faced with a moral dilemma or decision that challenges their deeply-held beliefs or values. This can cause inner turmoil and conflict, as the person struggles to reconcile their sense of what is right with the demands of the situation.
    Incident in life faced with such a crisis
    Once I went to stationary store, I saw a 10-year-old boy trying to steal food due to his hunger and for his younger ones. I came across crisis due being truthful and empathy towards the children. I paid the storekeeper after making convincing the issue and give some money to the children. Also gave a petition to collector to take necessary action for rehabilitation of them.
    Crisis should be solved with giving proper weightage for both the values and the end result should make less harm.
    6. Given below are three quotations of great moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these quotations, bring out what it means to you in the present context:
    (a)“There is enough on this earth for every one’s need but for no one’s greed.” -Mahatma Gandhi (150 words)
    Mahatma Gandhi's quote highlights the importance of living a sustainable and responsible lifestyle. Our needs are limited but our greed has no limit. We can easily satisfy our basic needs like food, clothing, and housing.
    There is enough on this earth for every one’s need but for no one’s greed
    • Deforestation: Greed-driven deforestation for logging or agricultural expansion destroys vital habitats, exacerbates climate change, and threatens the well-being of indigenous communities and wildlife.
    • Hoarding of Wealth: When individuals or corporations accumulate vast wealth without redistributing resources equitably, it perpetuates economic inequality, depriving others of basic needs and opportunities for a decent quality of life.
    • Pharmaceutical Price Gouging: In the pursuit of excessive profits, pharmaceutical companies may inflate drug prices, making life-saving medications unaffordable for those in need, undermining access to essential healthcare services.
    It reminds us that we need to focus on fulfilling our needs rather than indulging in our greed. It also emphasizes the need to conserve and protect the earth's resources for future generations. Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainable Agriculture, etc are way ahead in the journey.
    6. (b) “Nearly all men can withstand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power.” – Abraham Lincoln. (150 words)  
    Abraham Lincoln's quote highlights the importance of integrity and character in leadership. It suggests that when someone is given power, it can reveal their true character. In adversity people become humble, seek help and even surrender to God. But when men of weak character get power, opportunity, and position of control, they forget all duties, morality, ethics and politeness.
    All men withstand adversity, but giving power shoes  their character
    • Political Leadership: there are instances where leaders abuse their power, engaging in corruption, authoritarianism, and suppressing dissent, revealing a lack of ethical character.
    • Corporate Leadership: Ethical leaders use their power to create a positive organizational culture, however, some leaders may abuse their power by engaging in unethical practices like embezzlement, fraud, or exploitation, reflecting a lack of moral character.
    • Judiciary: it can positively act through PIL and make sufficient acts but at the same time they can make judicial overreach and burden separation of power.
    Power can reveal a person's true character. Some people may use their power to benefit themselves at the expense of others, while others may use their power to help those who are less fortunate. Ultimately, the way that someone uses their power can reveal a lot about their character.  
    6. (c) “I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies.” – Aristotle (150 words)
    Aristotle's quote highlights the importance of self-control and discipline. A person can overcome enemies by gaining more strength but not himself. Conquering oneself is the biggest challenge. As the person has unlimited desires, he falls prey to them.
    Those who overcome his desires is braver than those who overcome his enemies
    • Mother Teresa exemplified bravery by selflessly serving the poor and destitute, forsaking personal desires for comfort and security.
    • Vinoba Bhave's Bhoodan Movement encouraged landowners to voluntarily donate land to landless farmers, demonstrating bravery by overcoming desires for personal wealth and promoting social equality.
    • Gandhiji even with good family background come forward to fight for freedom by controlling his desires
    • Buddha and his theory of dukka
    It requires self-awareness, self-discipline, and a commitment to personal growth and ethical principles. By conquering these internal battles, individuals demonstrate tremendous courage and strength of character.
    7. “The good of an individual is contained in the good of all.” what do you understand by this statement? How can this principle be implemented in public life? (150 words)
    The statement means that the well-being of an individual is interdependent on the well-being of society as a whole. It suggests that individuals cannot achieve true happiness and fulfilment if the community around them is suffering.
    Ways to implement this principle in public life
    • Inclusive development: policies and programs should be designed to promote the welfare of all members of society, not just a select few. This can include measures such as equitable distribution of resources, access to education and healthcare, and protection of human rights.
    • Personal and collective accountability: Individuals must also take responsibility for their actions and decisions, recognizing that their choices can impact the well-being of others. This requires a shift in mindset from individualism to collectivism.
    • Democracy: Citizens should be encouraged to participate in the democratic process, and their voices should be heard in policy decision-making. This can include initiatives such as town hall meetings, public consultations, and online forums where citizens can share their thoughts and ideas
    By implementing this principle in public life, we can create a more just and equitable society where everyone can thrive and reach their full potential.
    8. It is often said that ‘politics’ and ‘ethics do not go together. What is your opinion in this regard? Justify your answer with illustration. (150 words)
    Ethics are certain code of conduct applicable to standard of behaviour. Politics works for social progress and welfare. Therefore, using ethics in politics can result into better society. Politics is about the distribution of power and resources in society, and ethical considerations should guide how this is done. This includes principles such as fairness, justice, and respect for human rights. Politics and ethics not going together
    • Corruption Scandals: Instances of corruption among politicians and government officials can raise ethical concerns.
      E.g.: 2G scam
    • Human Rights Violations: Political decisions and policies that disregard or violate human rights can create ethical dilemmas.
      E.g.: Rohingya crisis
    • Environmental Policies: Balancing economic growth with sustainability and addressing the urgent need to mitigate environmental harm raises ethical considerations.
      E.g.: coal-based electricity generation
    Politics and ethics going together
    • International Cooperation and Peace: Ethical politics promote cooperation among nations, diplomatic dialogue, and peaceful resolution of conflicts.
      E.g.: PM calling both heads of Russia and Ukraine to solve the issue
    • Environmental Protection: Ethical political decisions focus on sustainable development, environmental stewardship, and combating climate change
      E.g.: Panchamrit goals by PM at Glasgow summit
    • Social Justice and Welfare: Political systems that prioritize social justice and welfare strive to address inequalities, alleviate poverty, and provide essential services and opportunities to all members of society.
      E.g.: Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY distribute free food grains as part of the COVID-19 relief package
    Politics without principles is a sin according to Gandhi. So, it is important to recognize that ethical considerations for good governance and a just society. Leaders who prioritize ethics and integrity can inspire public trust and create positive change.


    9. A Public Information Officer has received an application under RTI Act. Having gathered the information, the PIO discovers that the information pertains to some of the decisions taken by him, which were found to be not altogether right. There were other employees also who were party to these decisions. Disclosure of the information is likely to lead to disciplinary action with possibility of punishment against him as well as some of his colleagues. Non-disclosure or part disclosure or camouflaged disclosure of information will result into lesser punishment or no punishment.
    The PIO is otherwise an honest and conscientious person but his particular decision, on which the RTI application has been filed, turned out to be wrong. He comes to you for advice.
    The following are some suggested options. Please evaluate the merits and demerits of each of the option:
    1. The PIO could refer the matter to his superior officer and seek his advice and act strictly in accordance with the advice, even though he is not completely in agreement with the advice of the superior.
    2. PIO could proceed on leave and leave the matter to be dealt by his successor in office or request for transfer of the application to another PIO.
    3. The PIO could weigh the consequences of disclosing the information truthfully, including the effect on his career, and reply in a manner that would not place him or his career in jeopardy, but at the same time a little compromise can be made on the contents of the information.
    4. The PIO could consult his other colleagues who are party to the decision and take action as per their advice.
    Also, please indicate (without restricting to the above options) what you would like to advice, giving proper reasons? (250 words)
    The Public Information Officer (PIO) faces a significant ethical dilemma as the information requested under the RTI Act pertains to decisions in which the PIO, along with other employees, was involved and found to be incorrect. The disclosure of this information may result in disciplinary action and punishment. The dilemma arises between upholding honesty and integrity by disclosing the information truthfully, and the potential consequences of punishment for the PIO and colleagues.
    Stakeholders involved in this case are:

    Option 1: Referring the matter to the superior officer:
    • Merits: Seeking guidance from a superior officer can provide clarity on how to handle the situation and navigate potential disciplinary actions. Following their advice may help minimize personal repercussions.
    • Demerits: Depending solely on the advice of the superior officer may compromise the PIO's personal values and integrity if the advice is contrary to ethical principles. It may also undermine the PIO's credibility if the advice is perceived as an attempt to avoid responsibility.
    Option 2: Proceeding on leave or requesting transfer:
    • Merits: Removing oneself from the situation by going on leave or requesting a transfer may alleviate the immediate consequences and allow the matter to be handled by someone else.
    • Demerits: This approach may be seen as an attempt to avoid accountability and responsibility. It does not address the ethical dilemma and may damage the PIO's professional reputation if perceived as an evasion of duty.
    Option 3: Weighing the consequences and compromising on the information
    • Merits: Considering the consequences and compromising on the information may help protect the PIO's career and avoid severe disciplinary actions.
    • Demerits: Compromising on the truthfulness of the information undermines the principles of transparency and accountability. It can erode trust in the system and perpetuate a culture of concealment and misinformation.
    Option 4: Consulting colleagues and acting based on their advice:
    • Merits: Seeking input from colleagues who were also involved in the decisions can provide different perspectives and insights. Collaborative decision-making may help find a more balanced approach.
    • Demerits: Relying solely on the advice of colleagues may lead to groupthink and reinforce flawed decision-making. It does not guarantee an ethical resolution if the colleagues have a vested interest in avoiding accountability.
    In this scenario, the PIO should respond truthfully to the RTI application and provide all the information that has been requested. The PIO should take responsibility for their actions and face the consequences of their decisions, even if they may not be favourable. The PIO should prioritize the principles of transparency and accountability, which are the core values of the RTI Act. The PIO should also ensure that the information provided is accurate and not camouflaged, as this would be a violation of the RTI Act. In case of any adverse action against the PIO, they should use the available legal remedies to protect their rights.
    In conclusion, situations like these underscore the critical need for accountability and transparency in public service. Upholding ethical principles, even in challenging circumstances, is essential to maintain trust and credibility. Embracing accountability and transparency not only ensures responsible decision-making but also fosters a culture of integrity and public confidence in the system.
    10.You are working as an Executive Engineer in the construction cell of a Municipal Corporation and are presently in-charge of the construction of a flyover. There are two Junior Engineers under you who have the responsibility of day-to-day inspection of the site and are reporting to you, while you are finally reporting to the Chief Engineer who heads the cell. While the construction is heading towards completion, the Junior Engineers have been regularly reporting that all construction is taking place as per design specifications. However, in one of your surprise inspections, you have noticed some serious deviations and lacunae which, in your opinion, are likely to affect the safety of the flyover. Rectification of these lacunae at this stage would require a substantial amount of demolition and rework which will cause a tangible loss to the contractor and will also delay completion. There is a lot of public pressure on the Corporation to get this construction completed because of heavy traffic congestion in the area. When you brought this matter to the notice of the Chief Engineer, he advised you that in his opinion it is not a very serious lapse and may be ignored. He advised for further expediting the project for completion in time. However, you are convinced that this was a serious matter which might affect public safety and should not be left unaddressed.
    What will you do in such a situation? Some of the options are given below. Evaluate the merits and demerits of each of these options and finally suggest what course of action you would like to take, giving reasons. (250 words) 20 M
    1. Follow the advice of the Chief Engineer and go ahead.
    2. Make an exhaustive report of the situation bringing out all facts and analysis along with your own viewpoints stated clearly and seek for written orders from the chief Engineer.
    3. Call for explanation from the Junior Engineers and issue orders to the contractor for necessary correction within targeted time.
    4. Highlight the issue so that it reaches superiors above the Chief Engineer.
    5. Considering the rigid attitude of the Chief Engineer, seek transfer from the project or report sick.
    The situation presents significant ethical issues in the construction of the flyover, where serious deviations and lacunae have been observed that could compromise public safety. The conflict arises between the pressure to complete the project promptly due to public demand and the responsibility to address the safety concerns. The ethical dilemma involves balancing the potential loss to the contractor, the project's timeline, and the paramount importance of ensuring public safety and adhering to design specifications.
    Stakeholders involved in this case are:

    Option (i) Follow the advice of the Chief Engineer and go ahead.
    • helps maintaining a harmonious working relationship with senior
    • timely completion of the project - meeting the public demand and reducing traffic congestion.
    • avoids additional expenses and delays associated with demolition and rework
    • It compromises public safety - could potentially lead to accidents or structural failures.
    • It undermines professional ethics and adherence to design specifications and safety standards.
    • It may expose the organization and individuals involved to legal liabilities and reputational damage if accidents or failures occur
    Option (ii) Make an exhaustive report of the situation bringing out all facts and analysis along with your own viewpoints stated clearly and seek written orders from the Chief Engineer.
    • It upholds professional integrity and responsibility
    • It ensures that my concerns are properly communicated and recorded, providing evidence of your commitment to public safety.
    • By seeking written orders, it clarifies the responsibility of the Chief Engineer and establishes a clear line of accountability.
    • It may create tension and conflicts with the Chief Engineer.
    • It could result in delays and additional expenses
    Option (iii) Call for explanation from the Junior Engineers and issue orders to the contractor for necessary correction within the targeted time.
    • It addresses the immediate issue by holding the Junior Engineers accountable
    • It demonstrates your proactive approach
    • It maintains a sense of authority and control over the project
    • It may not address the underlying systemic issues that led to the deviations, such as lack of proper supervision or adherence to quality control measures.
    • It relies on the cooperation and competence of the Junior Engineers and contractor.
    • It may not fully address the concerns raised in the exhaustive report and may be seen as a partial solution.
    Option (iv) Highlight the issue so that it reaches superiors above the Chief Engineer.
    • It escalates the matter to higher authorities who may have a broader perspective and the power to enforce corrective actions.
    • It provides a mechanism for independent evaluation and intervention, reducing the influence of the Chief Engineer's opinion.
    • It may bypass the immediate superior, the Chief Engineer, leading to strained relationships and potential professional consequences.
    • It may take time for the issue to reach higher authorities
    • It may create a sense of distrust and undermine the hierarchy and chain of command within the organization.
    Option (v) Considering the rigid attitude of the Chief Engineer, seek transfer from the project or report sickness.
    • It allows me to distance yourself from the project and potential ethical dilemmas, prioritizing your personal well-being and professional integrity.
    • It provides an opportunity to seek alternative assignments
    • It may be perceived as an escape or avoidance strategy
    • It may hinder my career growth and reputation
    • It may not contribute to resolving the problem
    Considering the detailed evaluation, option (ii) is the right choice as
    • Making an exhaustive report of the situation bringing out all facts and analysis along with your own viewpoints stated clearly and seek written orders from the Chief Engineer remains the most appropriate course of action.
    • It upholds professional integrity, prioritizes public safety, and establishes a clear record of your concerns.
    • Seeking written orders ensures that the responsibility lies with the Chief Engineer and provides a documented trail of accountability.
    • While it may involve challenges and potential conflicts, it is the ethically responsible and transparent approach to address the serious deviations in the construction project.
    In conclusion, upholding ethical principles is paramount when public safety is at stake. Prioritizing public welfare over project completion and potential losses to the contractor is essential to maintain integrity and accountability. It is crucial to address the serious deviations and lacunae, ensuring adherence to design specifications and safeguarding the well-being of the community.
    11. Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu is known for its manufacturing clusters on firecrackers and matches. The local economy of the area is largely dependent on firecrackers industry. It has led to tangible economic development and improved standard of living in the area.
    So far as child labour norms for hazardous industries like firecrackers industry are concerned, International Labour Organization (ILO) has set the minimum age as 18 years. In India, however, this age is 14 years.
    The units in industrial clusters of firecrackers can be classified into registered and non-registered entities. One typical unit is household-based work. Though the law is clear on the use of child labour employment norms in registered/non-registered units, it does not include household-based works. Household-based work means children working under the supervision of their parents/relatives. To evade child labour norms, several units project themselves as household-based works but employ children from outside. Needless to say, that employing children saves the costs for these units leading to higher profits to the owners.
    On your visit to one of the units at Sivakasi, the owner takes you around the unit which has about 10-15 children below 14 years of age. The owner tells you that in his household-based unit, the children are all his relatives. You notice that several children smirk, when the owner tells you this. On deeper enquiry, you figure out that neither the owner nor the children are able to satisfactorily establish their relationship with each other.
    (a) Bring out and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.
    (b) What would be your reaction after your above visit? (300 words)
    The scenario in Sivakasi highlights significant ethical issues surrounding child labour in the firecrackers industry. The exploitation of children, misrepresentation of units as household-based works, and evading child labour norms raise concerns about the violation of human rights, ethical labour practices, and the well-being of children involved. The situation calls for ethical considerations to protect children's rights and ensure responsible business practices.
    Stakeholders involved in this case are:

    (a) The case presented raises several ethical issues related to child labour, human rights, and social responsibility. Firstly, the owner of the unit is violating the minimum age norms set by ILO and Indian law by employing children below the age of 14. This is not only illegal but also unethical as it puts the children's health and safety at risk.
    Secondly, the owner is misrepresenting the children as his relatives to evade legal and ethical responsibility. This violates the principle of truthfulness and transparency, which are essential for building trust and social responsibility.
    Thirdly, the owner's actions also violate the children's right to education, play, and a normal childhood. Child labour deprives children of their fundamental rights and exposes them to physical, psychological, and emotional harm. This can lead to long-term consequences, including illiteracy, poverty, and social exclusion. Lastly, the case highlights the larger social responsibility of the firecrackers industry. The industry's heavy dependence on child labour and the lack of alternative livelihoods in the area suggest that the problem is systemic and requires a comprehensive and collaborative solution.
    (b) As an observer and an ethical professional, my reaction to the situation would be to report the matter to the relevant authorities and advocate for the children's rights and well-being. This would involve gathering evidence, documenting the violation of child labour laws, and reporting it to the local labour department or child protection agency. I would also engage with the owner, the children, and the community to understand their perspectives and concerns and explore alternative solutions that are sustainable and ethical.
    Additionally, I would work with the local government, civil society organizations, and the industry stakeholders to promote child-friendly policies and practices, including education, healthcare, and vocational training. This would require a long-term commitment to creating awareness, building capacity, and mobilizing resources for sustainable development. Finally, I would raise awareness about the ethical implications of child labour and advocate for the protection of children's rights and dignity.
    In conclusion, it is crucial to prioritize ethical principles and protect the rights of children in the firecrackers industry. Upholding international labour standards, preventing the exploitation of children, and promoting responsible business practices are paramount. Ensuring the well-being and safety of children should take precedence over economic gains, fostering a more just and ethical society.
    12. You are heading a leading technical institute of the country. The institute is planning to convene an interview panel shortly under your chairmanship for selection of the post of professors. A few days before the interview, you get a call from the Personal Secretary (PS) of a senior government functionary seeking your intervention in favour of the selection of a close relative of the functionary for this post. The PS also informs you that he is aware of the long pending and urgent proposal of our institute for grant of funds for modernization, which are awaiting the functionary’s approval. He assures you that he would get these proposals cleared.
    (a)      What are the options available to you?
    (b) Evaluate each of these options and choose the option which you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)
    The situation presents significant ethical issues surrounding nepotism, influence, and potential quid pro quo in the selection process for a professorship. The request to favour a close relative of a senior government functionary in exchange for approval of pending proposals raises concerns about fairness, integrity, and the credibility of the selection process. Balancing personal interests and institutional integrity becomes a challenge in ensuring ethical conduct in decision-making
    Stakeholders involved in this case are:

    (a) The options available to me
    • To succumb to the pressure and influence of the government functionary and grant the professorship to his close relative.
    • To ignore the request and conduct the selection process fairly and transparently.
    • To inform the government functionary about the conflict of interest and decline the request.
    • To report the incident to the appropriate authorities and seek their intervention.
    (b) Option 1: Succumbing to pressure would be unethical and compromise the integrity of the selection process. It would also set a bad precedent and erode the institute's reputation for fairness and transparency. Moreover, it would be unfair to other candidates who may be better qualified and deserving of the post.
    Option 2: Ignoring the request and conducting the selection process fairly and transparently would uphold the institute's values of meritocracy and integrity. It would also ensure that the best candidate is selected for the post, based on their qualifications and experience. However, this may jeopardize the pending proposal for funds, which could impact the institute's modernization plans.
    Option 3: Informing the government functionary about the conflict of interest and declining the request would be a principled and ethical response. It would demonstrate the institute's commitment to impartiality and ethical behaviour. However, this could result in more pressure and they may even offer personal favours as the approach is a softer one.
    Option 4: Reporting the incident to the appropriate authorities and seeking their intervention would be a responsible and ethical approach. It would ensure that the selection process is conducted fairly and transparently and protect the institute's reputation. However, this could also have negative consequences, such as damaging the institute's relationship with the government or delaying the grant of funds.
    Based on these evaluations and considering the ethical importance of maintaining integrity and fairness, the recommended option would be to reject the request and uphold the principles of merit-based selection. By doing so, the institute reinforces its commitment to ethical conduct, protects its reputation, and promotes transparency and fairness in the selection process. It is crucial to prioritize long-term institutional integrity over short-term gains or potential benefits that may compromise ethical standards.
    In conclusion, upholding ethical principles is of paramount importance in the selection process for a professorship. Fostering fairness, transparency, and merit-based appointments ensures the integrity and credibility of the institution. Prioritizing ethical conduct over personal interests or external influences preserves institutional integrity and upholds the values of fairness and meritocracy.

    13. As a senior officer in the Finance Ministry, you have access to some confidential and crucial information about policy decisions that the Government is about to announce.
    These decisions are likely to have far-reaching impact on the housing and construction industry. If the builders have access to this information beforehand, they can make huge profits. One of the builders has done a lot of quality work for the Government and is known to be close to your immediate superior, who asks you to disclose this information to the said builder.

    (a)      What are the options available to you?
    (b) Evaluate each of these options and choose the options which you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)

    The situation presents significant ethical issues concerning the disclosure of confidential and crucial information to a builder for personal gain. The potential for the builder to exploit the information to make significant profits raises concerns about fairness, integrity, and the misuse of privileged access. Balancing loyalty to superiors and the duty to act in the best interest of the public and uphold ethical standards becomes a challenging dilemma in this scenario.
    Stakeholders involved in this case are:

    (a) The options available to me
    • Disclose the confidential information to the builder as directed by my immediate superior.
    • Refuse to disclose the information and report the incident to the appropriate authorities.
    • Consult with a legal expert and seek their advice on how to proceed.
    • Find a way to provide the information to the public or media anonymously to prevent the builders from profiting unfairly.
    (b) Option 1: Disclosing the confidential information to the builder would be unethical and illegal. It would compromise the integrity of the policy decisions and harm the public interest. It could also result in legal consequences for me and damage the reputation of the Finance Ministry.
    Option 2: Refusing to disclose the information and reporting the incident to the appropriate authorities would be the right ethical and legal response. It would demonstrate my commitment to upholding the public interest and the rule of law. However, it may also have negative consequences, such as damaging my relationship with my immediate superior or facing retaliation from the builder or their allies.
    Option 3: Consulting with a legal expert and seeking their advice on how to proceed could help me make an informed and responsible decision. They may suggest alternative ways to address the issue, such as reporting the incident to a higher authority or seeking whistle-blower protection.
    Option 4: Finding a way to provide the information to the public or media anonymously could prevent the builders from profiting unfairly and protect the public interest. However, this could also be risky and expose me to legal and professional consequences. Based on these evaluations, I would choose option 2 - to refuse to disclose the information and report the incident to the appropriate authorities. This would demonstrate my commitment to upholding the public interest and the rule of law, and protect me from legal consequences. I would also consult with a legal or ethical expert to ensure that my actions are responsible and ethical.
    In conclusion, upholding ethical principles is paramount in situations involving confidential information and potential conflicts of interest. Acting in the best interest of the public and maintaining integrity requires refraining from disclosing privileged information for personal gain. Prioritizing transparency, fairness, and the public good preserves trust, credibility, and the ethical foundation of responsible decision-making.
    14. You are the Executive Director of an upcoming InfoTech Company which is making a name for itself in the market.
    Mr. A, who is a star performer, is heading the marketing team. In a short period of one year, he has helped in doubling the revenues as well as creating a high brand equity for the Company so much so that you are thinking of promoting him. However, you have been receiving information from many corners about his attitude towards the female colleagues; particularly his habit of making loose comments on women. In addition, he regularly sends indecent SMS’s to all the team members including his female colleagues.
    One day, late in the evening, Mrs. X, who is one of Mr. A’s team members, comes to you visibly disturbed. She complains against the continued misconduct of Mr. A, who has been making undesirable advances towards her and has even tried to touch her inappropriately in his cabin.
    She tenders her resignation and leaves your office.
    (a)      What are the options available to you?
    (b) Evaluate each of these options and choose the options you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)
    The situation presents significant ethical issues regarding workplace harassment and misconduct by Mr. A, the star performer heading the marketing team. The allegations of making loose comments, sending indecent messages, and engaging in inappropriate behaviour towards female colleagues raise concerns about a hostile work environment, gender discrimination, and violation of professional ethics. Balancing the company's success and reputation with the need to address misconduct becomes an ethical dilemma for the Executive Director.
    Stakeholders involved in this case are:

    (a) As the Executive Director, the following options are available:
    • Ignore the complaint and take no action against Mr. A.
    • Confront Mr. A privately and warn him to stop his inappropriate behaviour.
    • Initiate an internal investigation into the matter and take appropriate disciplinary action against Mr. A.
    • Report the matter to the police and file a criminal complaint against Mr. A.
    (b) Option 1 is not a viable solution since it would be unethical to ignore the complaint of harassment and misconduct by an employee.
    Option 2
    • Merits: Provides an opportunity for direct communication and addressing the issue informally.
    • Demerits: This approach may not be sufficient to ensure long-term behavioural change or guarantee the safety and well-being of the complainant and other employees. It may also lack a formal mechanism for accountability and documentation.
    Option 3
    • Merits: Demonstrates a commitment to addressing workplace misconduct, promotes a safe and inclusive work environment, and ensures accountability. It protects the rights and well-being of the complainant and provides a clear message against harassment.
    • Demerits: The process may be time-consuming and resource-intensive. There may be challenges in collecting evidence and conducting a fair investigation. It may also lead to potential conflicts within the team
    Option 4
    • Merits: Ensures a comprehensive and external investigation into the allegations. It signals zero tolerance for harassment and sends a strong message that such behaviour will not be tolerated.
    • Demerits: Involving legal authorities may result in a lengthy legal process and potential negative publicity for the company. It may strain relationships within the organization and impact employee morale.
    Therefore, the best course of action would be to choose option 3. This involves initiating an internal investigation into the matter and taking appropriate disciplinary action against Mr. A. The investigation should be conducted impartially and in a confidential manner to protect the privacy of the complainant and other employees. The disciplinary action against Mr. A should be based on the findings of the investigation and should be in accordance with the company's policies and procedures. This may include termination of employment, suspension, demotion, or reprimand, depending on the severity of the offense.
    After the internal investigation and on establishing the facts of the case, It is important to file a police case as the issue is an criminal offence. The victim must be given counselling and should be encouraged to file a formal complaint. She needs to be made feel safe around the workplace. As the Executive Director, it is my responsibility that none of the female colleagues experience such an issue in the future.
    By taking this course of action, the company sends a clear message that such behaviour will not be tolerated and that the well-being and safety of its employees is of utmost importance.