Govt. introduces women’s quota Bill in Lok Sabha; PM calls for a consensus


General Studies Paper - 1 Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.


General Studies - 2 Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Women’s Reservation Bill [The Constitution (128th Amendment) Bill, 2023]

  • The bill seeks to reserve one third of all seats for women in the Lok Sabha and the state legislativeassemblies to be determined by an authority prescribed by parliament.
  • One third of the total number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be reserved for women of those groups in the Lok Sabha and the legislative assemblies.
  • Reserved seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in the state or union territory.
  • It has a sunset clause of 15 years since enforcement of the amendment.
  • However, it would be implemented only after the 2026 delimitation exercise using data from the Census to be conducted, after the passage of the Bill.
  • The reservation in the Lok Sabha can hence be implemented only in the Lok Sabha election in 2029 and not in 2024.

Three Hoysala temples declared World Heritage Sites


General Studies Paper - 1 Current events of national and international importance


General Studies - 1 Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Hoysala Architecture

  • between the 11th and 14th centuries which was mainly concentrated in southern Karnataka.
  • Hoysala temples are often mentioned as vesara as their unique style is a blend of Dravida and Nagara styles.
  • The Hoysala temples contain multiple shrines grouped around a central pillared hall and laid out in the shape of a star (stellate plan).
  •  They are made out of soapstone.

The Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala

The Hoysala temples of Belur, Halebid and Somananthpura in Karnataka were declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Chennakeshava Temple (Belur,Karnataka)

  • It was built around 1117 AD during the period of king Vishnuvardhana.
  • Deity: Lord Vishnu (Chennakesava)
  • “Chenna” means beautiful, “Keshava” means Vishnu
  • Richly sculptured exterior depicting scenes from lord Vishnu’s life, epics, and some representations of lord Shiva.
  • It follows a stellate plan with a raised platform.

Hoysaleshwara Temple (Halebidu, Karnataka)

  • It was built around 1121 AD during the period of king Vishnuvardhana.
  •  Deity: Lord Shiva (Hoysaleshwara)
  •  The temple is known for more than 240 wall sculptures with various themes.
  •  It has a walled complex with three Jaina temples and a stepped well.

Keshava Temple (Somanathapura, Karnataka)

  • It was built around 1268 AD during the period of king Narasimha III.
  •  D e i t y : Lord Vishnu
  •  It is a Trikuta Temple dedicated to Lord Krishna (Lord Vishnu’s incarnation) in three forms: Janardhana, Keshava, and Venugopala.

NGOs flay APF for allowing NHRC to host meet in Delhi


General Studies Paper - 1 Current events of national and international importance


General Studies - 2 Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF)

  • The APF was established in 1996 with the fundamental goal to support the establishment of independent national human rights institutions in the Asia Pacific region and its strengthening.
  • Currently it consists of 26 National Human Rights Institutions across the Asia Pacific region.
  •  APF also helps in shaping laws, policies, and practices that create strong, inclusive communities as well as building partnerships among countries to tackle serious challenges in the region.